Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common and widespread form of arthritis, affecting an estimated 655 million people worldwide. Occurring as a result of cartilage degeneration, OA is a progressive degenerative disorder that most commonly affects the joints of the hands, hips, knees, and spine.
Although OA can affect anyone, it is most commonly observed in older patients. In fact, all individuals over the age of 65 are believed to demonstrate some clinical or radiographic evidence of OA.
While surgical and pharmaceutical treatment options for OA exist as a way to manage the symptoms and progression of the disease, treatment for the restoration of normal cartilage function has yet to be achieved.
Considering the tissue of joint cartilage is composed primarily of chondrocytes found in bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), using these specific stem cells appears to have significant potential for use in the therapeutic regeneration of cartilage.
In this review, Gupta et al. evaluate the advances in using BMSCs and their therapeutic potential for repairing cartilage damage in OA. Evaluating current research, the authors point out that one of the key characteristics of MSCs, including BMSCs, is that they are generally hypoimmunogenic and possess immunosuppressive activity, suggesting that BMSCs could be used as allogeneic applications for cartilage repair.
Preclinical models of OA have also demonstrated that the effects of MSC transplantation have been effective for cartilage repair. Additionally, clinical models have reported on the safety and positive therapeutic effects of MNSC administration in patients with OA.
The authors point out that while the exact mechanism by which BMSCs regenerate articular cartilage in patients with OA is not clear, their ability to induce proliferation and tissue-specific differentiation appears to aid in the repair of damaged cartilage.
The ability of BMSCs to migrate and engraft onto multiple musculoskeletal tissues and differentiate at the site of injury while demonstrating anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties demonstrate their potential as a therapeutic treatment for degenerative diseases like OA.
While the information provided in this review demonstrates the potential of BMSCs to support treatment and recovery from the damage caused because of OA, Gupta et al. call for additional clinical studies to assess the curative properties and long-term outcome of using MCSCs for the treatment of OA before they can be used routinely as a clinical treatment for the condition.
Medical ozone refers to the therapeutic use of ozone gas in medical treatments. Ozone (O3) is a molecule composed of three oxygen atoms, and it is a highly reactive form of oxygen.
In medical ozone applications, the ozone gas is thought to stimulate the immune system, increase oxygen delivery to tissues, and have antibacterial and antiviral properties.
What Can Ozone Help?
Proponents of ozone therapy claim that it can help benefit in the management of various conditions:
Chronic infections: Ozone therapy has been used in the management of chronic viral, bacterial, and fungal infections. It is believed to have antimicrobial properties and can potentially support the immune system in combating infections.
Autoimmune disorders: Some proponents suggest that ozone IV therapy may help modulate the immune response in autoimmune conditions. However, further research is needed to validate its efficacy in this regard.
Circulatory disorders: Ozone therapy has been explored as a potential treatment for circulatory disorders, including peripheral arterial disease and venous insufficiency. It is thought to improve oxygen delivery to tissues and enhance blood circulation.
Chronic fatigue syndrome: Ozone IV therapy has been proposed as a complementary treatment for chronic fatigue syndrome, with the aim of boosting energy levels and improving overall well-being. However, scientific evidence supporting its use in this context is limited.
Musculoskeletal conditions: Some practitioners have used ozone therapy as an adjunct treatment for musculoskeletal conditions like osteoarthritis and herniated discs. It is believed to have anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties, but further research is required.
Cancer support: Ozone IV therapy has been explored as a complementary therapy for cancer treatment. It is suggested to have immune-stimulating effects and potential benefits in enhancing the efficacy of conventional cancer treatments. However, the evidence supporting its use in cancer care is limited and controversial.
What is Ozone IV Therapy Using Saline?
Ozone IV therapy with a saline drip refers to the administration of ozone gas along with a saline solution through intravenous infusion. This method combines ozone therapy with the hydration benefits of a saline drip.
In this procedure, ozone gas is generated using a medical-grade ozone generator. The ozone gas is then mixed with a sterile saline solution, creating an ozone-saline mixture. This mixture is then infused into the patient’s bloodstream through an intravenous line, similar to a regular saline drip.
The rationale behind combining ozone with a saline drip is to enhance the hydration and detoxification effects of the therapy. Saline solution, which contains a balanced concentration of salts and minerals, helps replenish fluid levels in the body and promotes hydration. The addition of ozone gas is believed to provide additional therapeutic effects, such as immune stimulation and potential antimicrobial properties.
Ozone therapy should only be performed by trained medical professionals in a controlled clinical setting. It is essential to consult with a qualified healthcare provider who can evaluate your specific condition and determine if ozone therapy is appropriate for you.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from a wide variety of tissues and organs have demonstrated immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and regenerative properties that contribute to a host of regenerative and immunomodulatory activities, including tissue homeostasis and tissue repair. The most frequently studied and reported sources of MSCs are those collected from bone marrow and adipose tissue.
In this review, Krawczenkjo and Klimczak focus on MSCs derived from adipose tissue (AT-MSCs) and their secretome in regeneration processes.
Adipose tissue is the most commonly used source of MSCs, primarily because it is easily accessible and is often a byproduct of cosmetic and medical procedures. Like most MSCs, AT-MSCs are able to differentiate into adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteoblasts; they are also able to differentiate into neural cells, skeletal myocytes, cardiomyocytes, smooth muscle cells, hepatocytes, endocrine cells, and endothelial cells.
In addition, AT-MSCs secrete a broad spectrum of biologically active factors that serve as essential components involved in the therapeutic effects of MSCs, including the ability to stimulate cell proliferation, new blood vessel formation, and immunomodulatory properties; these factors include cytokines, lipid mediators, hormones, exosomes, microvesicles, and miRNA.
Preclinical and clinical studies on AT-MSCs in tissue regeneration were demonstrated to contribute to wound healing, muscle damage, nerve regeneration, bone regeneration, and lung tissue regeneration.
Evaluating these studies, Krawczenko and Aleksandra Klimczak conclude that AT-MSCs and their secretome are promising and powerful therapeutic tools in regenerative medicine, primarily due to their unique properties in supporting angiogenesis.
The results obtained by the preclinical and clinical studies evaluated for this review suggest that the ability of AT-MSCs and their derivatives, including EVs and CM, to deliver a wide range of bioactive molecules could be considered as factors supporting enhanced tissue repair and regeneration.
Certain foods have the potential to cause inflammation in the body. While the response to food can vary from person to person, here are some common foods that have been associated with inflammation:
Sugar: Foods high in added sugars, such as soda, candies, pastries, and sweetened beverages, can promote inflammation and contribute to various health issues.
Processed meats: Processed meats like sausages, hot dogs, and deli meats often contain high amounts of unhealthy fats, sodium, and additives that can trigger inflammation.
Trans fats: Found in many processed and fried foods, trans fats can increase inflammation and negatively impact heart health. They are commonly found in baked goods, margarine, and fast-food items.
Vegetable oils: Certain vegetable oils, such as soybean, corn, and sunflower oils, are high in omega-6 fatty acids. While our bodies need some omega-6 fats, an excessive intake, especially when the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fats is imbalanced, can promote inflammation.
Refined carbohydrates: Refined grains like white bread, white rice, and pastries undergo processing that removes their fiber and nutrients. They can cause a rapid spike in blood sugar levels, leading to increased inflammation.
Alcohol: Excessive alcohol consumption can disrupt the normal function of the gut and liver, leading to inflammation. It can also contribute to nutrient deficiencies that may worsen inflammation.
High-sodium foods: Foods that are high in sodium, such as processed snacks, canned soups, and fast food, can promote inflammation and contribute to water retention.
Artificial additives: Certain food additives, such as artificial sweeteners, food colorings, and preservatives, have been linked to inflammation and other health issues in some individuals.
It’s important to note that while these foods have the potential to cause inflammation, the degree of inflammation and its impact can vary among individuals. It’s a good idea to listen to your body and pay attention to how different foods make you feel. A balanced and varied diet, rich in whole foods like fruits, vegetables, lean proteins, and healthy fats, can help reduce inflammation and promote overall health. Consulting with a healthcare professional or a registered dietitian can provide personalized recommendations based on your specific needs and health goals.
What Types of Foods Are Part of an Anti-Inflammatory Diet?
An anti-inflammatory diet focuses on consuming foods that can help reduce inflammation in the body. While individual needs may vary, here are some types of foods that are generally considered beneficial in an anti-inflammatory diet:
Fruits and vegetables: These are rich in antioxidants, vitamins, minerals, and fiber. Include a variety of colorful fruits and vegetables, such as berries, leafy greens, broccoli, tomatoes, and bell peppers.
Healthy fats: Opt for sources of healthy fats, including avocados, nuts (such as almonds and walnuts), seeds (such as flaxseeds and chia seeds), and fatty fish (such as salmon, mackerel, and sardines) that provide omega-3 fatty acids.
Whole grains: Choose whole grains like brown rice, quinoa, oats, and whole wheat bread, which are higher in fiber and nutrients compared to refined grains.
Legumes: Incorporate beans, lentils, chickpeas, and other legumes into your meals. They are excellent sources of plant-based protein, fiber, and beneficial phytonutrients.
Herbs and spices: Turmeric, ginger, garlic, cinnamon, and other herbs and spices are known for their anti-inflammatory properties. They can be used to add flavor to your dishes and provide additional health benefits.
Healthy proteins: Include lean sources of protein like skinless poultry, tofu, tempeh, and low-mercury fish. Plant-based protein options can also be derived from legumes, nuts, and seeds.
Fermented foods: Foods like yogurt, kefir, sauerkraut, and kimchi contain beneficial probiotics that support gut health and may have anti-inflammatory effects.
Green tea: Green tea is rich in antioxidants and has been associated with reduced inflammation. It can be a good alternative to sugary or caffeinated beverages.
Extra virgin olive oil: This oil contains monounsaturated fats and compounds with anti-inflammatory properties. It can be used for cooking or as a dressing for salads.
Water: Staying hydrated is essential for overall health and can help maintain proper bodily functions.
Remember, an anti-inflammatory diet is not about focusing on specific foods alone but rather adopting a balanced approach that emphasizes whole, unprocessed foods and minimizes the intake of processed and sugary foods. It’s also important to consider any individual dietary restrictions or health conditions and consult with a healthcare professional or a registered dietitian for personalized advice.
Cardiovascular diseases continue to be the leading cause of death globally, accounting for nearly 18 million deaths each year with heart attack and stroke accounting for 80% of deaths.
Recently, stem-cell-based therapy has demonstrated the potential to regenerate damaged myocardium and to treat a wide range of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Specifically, the ability of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to differentiate into cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells has created a potentially new and promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of CVDs.
Huang et al. summarize the recent advances in MSC therapy, including the role of exosomes in future treatments of CVDs.
Recent studies have demonstrated that MSCs were able to secret cholesterol-rich, phospholipid exomes that were enriched with microRNAs (miRNAs). These exomes are nano-sized particles originating from multivesicular endosomal ranging in size from 30 – 100 nm and contain cytokines, proteins, lipids, mRNAs, and miRNAs. These exosomes are suggested as central mediators of intercellular communication and transfer proteins, mRNAs and miRNAs to adjacent cells.
The miRNAs found in exosomes play an essential role in various physiological and pathological processes by regulating gene expression at the post-transcription level. When applied in the cardiovascular system, miRNAs are internalized into CMCs and ECs and result in cardiomyocyte protection and angiogenesis promotion that has demonstrated beneficial and anti-inflammatory effects including cardiac regeneration, neovascularization, and anti-vascular remodeling; these observed benefits include improved cardiac function after a myocardial infarction (MI), reduced inflammation related to pulmonary hypertension, and increased tissue healing following an ischemia-reperfusion injury.
Huang et al. conclude that the studies evaluated in this review provide evidence that MSC-derived exosomes play an essential role in MSC-based therapy of CVDs including MI, reperfusion injury, and PH. Considering these conclusions, the authors call for additional studies to determine the detailed mechanisms and underlying benefits to determine their exact role.
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