Significant advances in the treatment of cancer have increased the number of cancer survivors while also allowing survivors to live longer and with overall improved quality of life. However, these treatments have also resulted in an increase in the number of survivors now living with their debilitating side effects, the most prominent being chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN).
According to the American Cancer Society, CIPN often occurs when nerves located outside the brain and spinal cord are damaged as a result of chemotherapy treatments. One of the many symptoms associated with CIPN is chronic oxidative stress, which results in a significant increase in free radicals and proinflammatory cytokines throughout the body. Common side effects of CIPN include dysesthesias, pain, anxiety, depression, insomnia, and fatigue.
It’s estimated that up to 85% of cancer patients are treated with neurotoxic chemotherapy, and up to 100% of those treated with platinum-based drugs (such as cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin), develop CIPN. Not only does CIPN significantly affect a patient’s quality of life, should it develop during cancer treatment, the condition often interrupts and/or delays scheduled chemotherapy sessions.
This review, authored by Clavo et al., examines current cancer treatments potential mechanisms that could result in CIPN, summarizes current CIPN prophylactic and treatment approaches introduce and describes the role of ozone therapy in modifying oxidative stress and inflammation (with a specific focus on how it relates to CIPN), and summarizes experimental and clinical trials using ozone therapy to address the symptoms of CIPN.
Through the course of their review, the authors conclude that while there are several medications and therapies designed to address the inflammation and oxidative stress associated with CIPN, the results of their effectiveness in achieving the desired and/or intended effect(s) have been inconclusive. As a result, the authors conclude that prophylactic and therapeutic approaches to CIPN continue to be limited in both numbers and efficacy.
Ozone therapy is the process of introducing ozone gas into the body to treat an existing disease or medical condition. According to a study published in Medical Gas Research, ozone, when introduced into the body, creates higher concentrations of red blood cells, increases oxygen levels in the body, and produces an anti-inflammatory response. This process, when used to treat CIPN, is thought to be potentially effective in addressing the symptoms of the condition by inducing adaptive responses of tissues within the body.
The authors conclude their review by describing their current research examining the effect of ozone therapy on the analytical and symptomatic evolution of patients with CIPN. Specifically, this research will explore whether or not a relationship exists between the basal levels in oxidative stress parameters, including hyperspectral imagines (HSI), and the quality of life and symptoms self-reported by patients. The authors also call for further research to better understand the role of oxidative stress in CIPN as well as the clinical role of its modulation.
Inflammation in the body can contribute to a wide range of chronic diseases and conditions. But you can curb inflammation by eating the right foods.
It is important to have knowledge about which foods cause inflammation and which foods fight it. In this post, we will discuss the most effective anti-inflammatory foods. We will also list eight foods to avoid when you’re fighting inflammation.
Primary Types of Inflammation
Inflammation is a natural function of the body’s immune system. There are two main types of inflammation that the human body experiences.
Acute inflammation happens when the body is injured or sick. When acute inflammation occurs, the person may experience redness, swelling, or elevated body temperatures. This type of inflammation is helpful for healing, even though the symptoms are often unpleasant. Overall, acute inflammation is a healthy bodily response.
On the other hand, chronic inflammation is usually caused by an irritant or external condition. Examples include:
Environmental or food compounds
This type of inflammation can also be the result of poor sleep, stress, or anxiety. Chronic inflammation is associated with many negative health outcomes.
Food and Inflammation
The foods that you eat can contribute to or calm inflammation in the body. Those foods that contribute to chronic inflammation can cause high blood sugar levels and blood pressure over time.
It is important to make healthy choices regarding food, stress control, and physical activity. Poor food choices combined with inactivity or stress can lead to long-term health problems, including chronic fatigue.
Foods that help to naturally ease chronic inflammation include:
Characterized by vision loss caused by progressive damage to the optical nerve, glaucoma continues to be the second leading cause of blindness worldwide. Although painless, the glaucoma-induced cupping, thinning, and structural damage caused to various parts of the eye causes vision loss that starts in the periphery and gradually travels inward, eventually resulting in a total loss of vision.
Current treatments for glaucoma are mainly pharmacologic, laser-based, and surgical procedures that reduce the eye’s intraocular pressure (IOP), the most treatable risk factor of glaucoma. While these treatments have been demonstrated to be effective in treating the symptoms associated with glaucoma, they are not able to restore vision that has already been lost as a result of glaucoma.
The purpose of Chamiling et al.’s review is to evaluate the current developments surrounding the use and effectiveness of stem cell therapy, not only to treat the symptoms of glaucoma and other optic neuropathic conditions but also to explore the potential of restoring vision loss resulting from these conditions.
According to the authors, while most glaucoma-based therapies center around controlling IOP, they fail to address the main contributing factors associated with glaucoma-associated vision loss – which include axonal damage and loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the neurons that make up the optical nerve and that are responsible for transmitting visual images from the eye to the brain.
In their natural state, RGCs are what’s considered postmitotic; in other words, they are cells that do not regenerate. This means that any vision loss sustained as a result of the loss of these RGCs is permanent and unable to be reversed. Adding to the severity of early glaucoma is the fact that significant damage to, and loss of, RGCs typically occur before the first signs of developing visual issues are detected.
However, with the recent advancements in cell-based therapies, and considering the field’s rapid-developing understanding of ocular regeneration, there is hope that science will soon be able to advance options that not only treat glaucoma but also restore vision lost as a result of the condition. As such, Chamiling et al. focus this review primarily on the use of stem cell-derived RGCs for drug discovery and transplantation-based therapy in four specific areas: control of intraocular pressure; using pluripotent stem cells as a source of RGCs; stem cell-derived RGCs for transplantation and vision restoration; and using stem cell as a source for neurotrophic factors (NTF).
Through their review of the literature and, in part, a summary of advanced discussions held at the 2015 Ocular Research Symposia Foundation’s “Sight Restoration Through Stem Cell Therapy” meeting, the authors conclude that advancements in our understanding of stem cells combined with key advancements made in the field of ocular biology have resulted in the ability to differentiate human stem cells into a number of different ocular cell types.
While much of the research and trials examined has involved animal models of study, the progression of these efforts has led to a number of human trials exploring the differentiation of stem cells into retinal pigment epithelial cells. In addition, and more specifically related to glaucoma, recent studies demonstrate significant potential for the differentiation of stem cells into trabecular meshwork (TM) and RGCs as well as the opportunity to be used as a way to secrete NTFs.
As a result of this review, Chamling et al. call for continued study into the potential of human stem cells for the treatment of glaucoma while also concluding that the rapid advancement in stem cell technology continues to provide the pathway to further understanding of stem-cell applications in this field and to offer new hope for using cell-based therapies as a way to restore vision lost as a result of glaucoma or other optic nerve conditions.
Your immune system is a complex network of organs and cells, including white blood cells, which protect the body against infection, disease, and other foreign invaders. To work optimally, the system requires specific nutrients—many of which you can get from food. Here are a few immune-boosting foods to consider adding to your diet for increased resistance against illness and infection.
Yogurt helps the body produce antibodies that attack viruses. This is likely due to its rich concentration of probiotics, which help the portion of the immune system found in the intestinal tract. For the healthiest options, choose plain, unsweetened yogurt to avoid the added sugar.
Not only does garlic add lots of flavor to any dish, but it also has protective immune system benefits, thanks to the sulfur compounds in the vegetable. When chopped, it creates allicin, a compound with antiviral and antibacterial properties.
Nuts & Seeds
Nuts and seeds are good sources of vitamin E. This powerful antioxidant can help the body fight viruses. Moreover, options like Brazil nuts have more than a day’s serving of selenium, a mineral that can further support the immune system.
Leafy Greens & Citrus
We often think of citrus as the primary source of vitamin C, the antioxidant that helps to eliminate disease-causing free radicals. While oranges, lemons, and other citrus fruits are indeed fine options, leafy greens such as kale are also loaded with the vitamin.
If you have a sweet tooth, feel free to give in to it now and then—specifically, with a piece of dark chocolate. The indulgent treat plenty of magnesium, which helps components in the immune system called lymphocytes bind to and fight invaders. If you prefer to skip the chocolate, avocados, brown rice, pumpkin seeds, and spinach are also rich sources of the nutrient.
Proteins help repair muscle, but they’re also packed with zinc. This mineral is an essential source of fuel for white blood cells. In addition, it can help you maintain your energy levels and strength. Choose lean protein, such as low-fat cheese, chicken, or roast beef, for heart-healthy options.
Seafood such as salmon, herring, mackerel, and sardines have omega-3 fatty acids that can help promote immune system function. Specifically, DHA, a type of omega-3, can promote white blood cell activity to strengthen immunity.
With so many immune-boosting foods to choose from, it’s simple to begin incorporating more of these foods into your diet every day. Most are also beneficial to overall health—not just your immune system—and are therefore excellent choices for filling your plate.
What we eat affects our health either positively or negatively. Researchers have found reasonable evidence to suggest that the Mediterranean Diet, which is rich in fats, fruits, and vegetables, can help lower the rate of type 2 diabetes.
A typical Mediterranean Diet is cooked with olive oil, lots of fish, and a limited number of processed meats. Studies have shown that such a diet prevents conditions such as abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and insulin resistance.
In a Women’s Health Study, 25,317 subjects were involved. The data involved in the research were collected at the time of enrolment. This data was from a food frequency questionnaire and blood samples of the subjects. The results showed that 2,307 subjects had type 2 diabetes. Those that showed to develop type 2 diabetes and followed the Mediterranean Diet developed the condition at a 30% lower rate than those who did not follow the same diet.
It is important to clarify that from this study, the data does not show that the Mediterranean Diet prevents diabetes but does suggest that it may delay or lower the risk of the condition. The study also shows that women with a higher BMI and who are on the Mediterranean Diet have a delayed response to diabetes than their peers of lower weight.
This study helps researchers to identify the factors behind the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, it gives specific parameters to measure which is of great help in prescribing solutions. Essentially, our diet can impact our overall health. It is important to make healthier choices to prevent conditions that may come because of poor or misguided diets.
In conclusion, the Mediterranean Diet may be one to consider as a daily regimen if you and your doctor feel it would be a benefit to you. It has a lot of various foods, is delicious, and is considered very healthy.
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