Mehling et al.’s study aimed to evaluate the safety of WJ-MSC therapy for a range of conditions and administration routines, including intravenous, intrathecal, and intra-articular delivery.
Wharton’s jelly (WJ) is the mucoid connective tissue that surrounds the vessels in the human umbilical cord and provides protection from compression and torsion in response to fetal movement.
According to this study, the use of WJ-MSCs has many advantages over autologous MSCs, including circumventing the pain and healing process of invasive stem cell harvesting from a patient. Additionally, WJ-MSCs offer the highest level of potency for therapeutic benefit and exhibit increased proliferation ability and anti-inflammatory effects.
Additionally, WJ-MSCs have been demonstrated to be safe and effective for many conditions. WJ-MSCs also do not cause or contribute to infusion-related toxicity, treatment-related adverse events, or ectopic tissue formation, even when administered at high dosages.
In this study, Mehling et al. confirm the safety of human allogeneic WJ-MSCs delivered at high doses and through multiple delivery routes (including intravenous (IV), intrathecal (IT), and Intraarticular (IA)).
Specifically, as part of this study, 22 subjects were evaluated for adverse events (AEs) for a period of 6 months following treatments with WJ-MSCs for a range of conditions, including neurological and osteoarthritic indications.
At the conclusion of the 6-month period of evaluation, the study reported an AE rate of 9.3% (3 subjects from the 32 doses administered in this study). The reported AEs consisted of chills and headaches, both transient and mild, and resolving without concern. While both of these AEs (headache and chills) are relatively common reactions to cell administration, 1 of the 3 AEs was deemed related to the administration procedure.
Additionally, blood profiling of 75 markers for health and disease in the subjects of this study demonstrated that WJ-MSC treatment poses no hematological safety concerns.
Considering the minimal occurrences of AEs observed following WJ-MSC therapy administered during this study, the authors support the use of WJ-MSC therapy for various indications in future clinical studies.
Because of its ability to simultaneously activate multiple mechanisms, including paracrine, trophic, immunomodulatory, and differentiation, researchers consider mesenchymal stem cells to be an effective option for stem cell therapy.
After years of active research, bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) have been a prevalent source for MSC-based studies. There is also active research using MSCs from a variety of other sources, including adipose tissue, peripheral and umbilical cord blood, amniotic fluid, skin, dental pulp, synovium, umbilical cord tissue, placental complex, and endometrium.
As part of this review, Arutyunyan et al. review umbilical cord-derived MSCs (UC-MSCs) as a prospective source for MSC-based therapy. More specifically, the authors focus on the potential therapeutic benefits of Wharton’s jelly, the gelatinous substance found in the umbilical cord stroma; of particular interest to researchers is the presence of mesenchymal-derived cells, including stem cells, with the absence of capillaries.
When studied in vitro, researchers found UC-MSCs demonstrated the ability to differentiate into a wide range of cells, including chondrocytes, adipocytes, osteoblasts, odontoblast-like cells, dermal fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, and somatostatin-producing cells, sweat gland cells, endothelial cells, neuroglia cells, and dopaminergic neurons.
While it’s well known that MSCs produce a variety of bioactive compounds that supply a paracrine mechanism for their therapeutic activity, researchers have learned that UC-MSCs secretomes differ significantly from MSCs from bone marrow and adipose. Specifically, the most significant difference is UC-MSCs’ nearly complete absence of synthesis of the main proangiogenic factor, VEGF-A. UC-MSCs also demonstrate increased production of antiangiogenic factors when compared to BM-MSCs and AT-MSCs.
UC-MSCs have recently demonstrated the ability to transfer their own mitochondria into mitochondrial DNA-depleted cells. This observation has broad implications for the therapeutic potential of UC-MSCs, primarily due to the failure of mitochondria as an initial event in many diseases. In this regard, the authors conclude that the transfer of mitochondria provides a rationale for the therapeutic use of UC-MSCs for ischemic injury or disease linked to mitochondrial dysfunction.
Arutyunyan et al. found recent animal model preclinical studies regarding the use of UC-MSCs for the treatment of different diseases demonstrated promising results. Additionally, clinical studies involving UC-MSCs demonstrated to be safe with no significant side effects other than fever.
While the authors point out concern with the lack of standardized protocols for the isolation and expansion of UC-MSCs and of uniform requirements for the final product. Despite these concerns, the authors also conclude that the results of clinical trials using UC-MSCs are encouraging, particularly for the treatment of autoimmune and endocrine diseases.
Kidney disease, also known as renal disease or nephropathy, refers to a condition in which the kidneys are damaged or unable to function properly. The kidneys play a crucial role in filtering waste products, excess fluid, and toxins from the blood, while also maintaining the body’s electrolyte balance and producing important hormones. When kidney disease occurs, these vital functions are compromised, leading to a range of complications.
What Causes Kidney Disease?
Kidney disease can affect people of all ages and backgrounds. Kidney disease can have various causes, and understanding these underlying factors is crucial in managing the condition effectively. There are several primary causes of kidney disease:
Diabetes: Diabetes is a leading cause of kidney disease. High blood sugar levels can damage the blood vessels in the kidneys over time, impairing their ability to function properly. This condition, known as diabetic nephropathy, can progress to chronic kidney disease and ultimately lead to kidney failure.
Hypertension (High Blood Pressure): Uncontrolled high blood pressure puts excessive strain on the blood vessels in the kidneys, leading to their damage. Over time, this can result in chronic kidney disease. Conversely, kidney disease can also cause hypertension, creating a harmful cycle.
Glomerulonephritis: Glomerulonephritis refers to inflammation of the glomeruli, which are tiny filters in the kidneys responsible for removing waste from the blood. This inflammation can be triggered by infections, autoimmune disorders, or certain medications, leading to kidney damage and impaired function.
Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD): PKD is a genetic disorder characterized by the growth of fluid-filled cysts in the kidneys. These cysts gradually enlarge and interfere with kidney function, ultimately leading to kidney failure.
Urinary Tract Obstruction: Kidney disease can also result from obstructions in the urinary tract, such as kidney stones, tumors, or an enlarged prostate gland. These blockages can disrupt the normal flow of urine, causing kidney damage and infection.
Infections: Severe or recurrent kidney infections, such as pyelonephritis, can cause inflammation and scarring of the kidneys. If left untreated, these infections can lead to chronic kidney disease.
Medications and Toxins: Certain medications and toxins can damage the kidneys if used improperly or in excessive amounts. Examples include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), certain antibiotics, and illicit drugs.
It’s important to note that some individuals may have a combination of risk factors that contribute to kidney disease. Additionally, early detection, regular monitoring, and proper management of these underlying causes can significantly slow the progression of kidney disease and help preserve kidney function.
What Are the Symptoms?
The symptoms of kidney disease may vary depending on the stage and underlying cause but often include fatigue, swelling in the legs and ankles, frequent urination, foamy or bloody urine, persistent itching, and high blood pressure. However, in the early stages, kidney disease may be asymptomatic, making early detection and regular screening crucial, especially for individuals with risk factors.
If you suspect that you have kidney disease, it is crucial to take immediate action and seek medical attention. If kidney disease is diagnosed, it is vital to follow the advice and treatment plan provided by your healthcare professional.
Kidney disease requires ongoing monitoring to assess kidney function, evaluate the progression of the disease, and adjust treatment if necessary. Your healthcare professional will schedule regular follow-up appointments to review your progress, conduct further tests as needed, and make any necessary adjustments to your treatment plan.
Coping with a chronic condition like kidney disease can be emotionally challenging. Consider reaching out to friends, family, or support groups who can provide encouragement, share experiences, and offer practical advice. Support from others who understand the journey can be invaluable.
Left untreated, kidney disease can lead to serious complications such as fluid retention, electrolyte imbalances, anemia, bone disorders, cardiovascular problems, and ultimately kidney failure. In end-stage renal disease, patients may require dialysis or a kidney transplant to sustain life.
What are Kidney Disease Treatments?
Management of kidney disease involves a combination of lifestyle modifications, medication, and, in some cases, medical procedures. Treatment aims to slow the progression of the disease, control symptoms, and prevent complications. Lifestyle changes may include maintaining a healthy diet with controlled salt and protein intake, staying adequately hydrated, exercising regularly, managing blood pressure and blood sugar levels, and avoiding smoking and excessive alcohol consumption.
MSC therapy has shown promising potential for the treatment of kidney diseases. MSCs are a type of adult stem cell that can be isolated from various sources, including bone marrow, adipose tissue, and umbilical cord tissue.
In the context of kidney disease, stem cells have been studied for their regenerative and immunomodulatory properties. They have the ability to differentiate into different cell types, including kidney cells, and can also release various growth factors and cytokines that promote tissue repair and modulate the immune response. Here are some key points regarding the potential of MSC therapy for kidney disease:
Acute Kidney Injury (AKI): MSC therapy has been investigated as a potential treatment for AKI, a sudden loss of kidney function. Studies have shown that MSCs can enhance kidney repair, reduce inflammation, and improve kidney function in animal models of AKI. Clinical trials are underway to evaluate the safety and efficacy of MSC therapy for AKI in humans.
Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD): MSC therapy holds promise for the treatment of CKD, a progressive loss of kidney function over time. MSCs have been shown to have beneficial effects on renal fibrosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress, which are key factors in CKD progression. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that MSCs can ameliorate kidney damage and improve kidney function in animal models of CKD.
Immune modulation: MSCs possess immunomodulatory properties, which can be advantageous in kidney diseases with an immune component, such as autoimmune kidney diseases (e.g., lupus nephritis). MSCs can suppress abnormal immune responses, reduce inflammation, and promote tissue repair, thereby potentially mitigating the immune-mediated damage to the kidneys.
Safety and Delivery: MSC therapy has been generally considered safe, with no significant adverse effects reported in studies. Delivery methods vary but may include intravenous infusion or direct injection into the renal tissue during surgical procedures.
Kidney disease is a condition characterized by impaired kidney function, which can arise from various causes. Early detection, regular monitoring, and appropriate management are essential to slow the progression of the disease, maintain kidney function, and prevent complications. It is important for individuals with risk factors or concerning symptoms to seek medical attention for proper evaluation and treatment.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common and widespread form of arthritis, affecting an estimated 655 million people worldwide. Occurring as a result of cartilage degeneration, OA is a progressive degenerative disorder that most commonly affects the joints of the hands, hips, knees, and spine.
Although OA can affect anyone, it is most commonly observed in older patients. In fact, all individuals over the age of 65 are believed to demonstrate some clinical or radiographic evidence of OA.
While surgical and pharmaceutical treatment options for OA exist as a way to manage the symptoms and progression of the disease, treatment for the restoration of normal cartilage function has yet to be achieved.
Considering the tissue of joint cartilage is composed primarily of chondrocytes found in bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), using these specific stem cells appears to have significant potential for use in the therapeutic regeneration of cartilage.
In this review, Gupta et al. evaluate the advances in using BMSCs and their therapeutic potential for repairing cartilage damage in OA. Evaluating current research, the authors point out that one of the key characteristics of MSCs, including BMSCs, is that they are generally hypoimmunogenic and possess immunosuppressive activity, suggesting that BMSCs could be used as allogeneic applications for cartilage repair.
Preclinical models of OA have also demonstrated that the effects of MSC transplantation have been effective for cartilage repair. Additionally, clinical models have reported on the safety and positive therapeutic effects of MNSC administration in patients with OA.
The authors point out that while the exact mechanism by which BMSCs regenerate articular cartilage in patients with OA is not clear, their ability to induce proliferation and tissue-specific differentiation appears to aid in the repair of damaged cartilage.
The ability of BMSCs to migrate and engraft onto multiple musculoskeletal tissues and differentiate at the site of injury while demonstrating anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties demonstrate their potential as a therapeutic treatment for degenerative diseases like OA.
While the information provided in this review demonstrates the potential of BMSCs to support treatment and recovery from the damage caused because of OA, Gupta et al. call for additional clinical studies to assess the curative properties and long-term outcome of using MCSCs for the treatment of OA before they can be used routinely as a clinical treatment for the condition.
Medical ozone refers to the therapeutic use of ozone gas in medical treatments. Ozone (O3) is a molecule composed of three oxygen atoms, and it is a highly reactive form of oxygen.
In medical ozone applications, the ozone gas is thought to stimulate the immune system, increase oxygen delivery to tissues, and have antibacterial and antiviral properties.
What Can Ozone Help?
Proponents of ozone therapy claim that it can help benefit in the management of various conditions:
Chronic infections: Ozone therapy has been used in the management of chronic viral, bacterial, and fungal infections. It is believed to have antimicrobial properties and can potentially support the immune system in combating infections.
Autoimmune disorders: Some proponents suggest that ozone IV therapy may help modulate the immune response in autoimmune conditions. However, further research is needed to validate its efficacy in this regard.
Circulatory disorders: Ozone therapy has been explored as a potential treatment for circulatory disorders, including peripheral arterial disease and venous insufficiency. It is thought to improve oxygen delivery to tissues and enhance blood circulation.
Chronic fatigue syndrome: Ozone IV therapy has been proposed as a complementary treatment for chronic fatigue syndrome, with the aim of boosting energy levels and improving overall well-being. However, scientific evidence supporting its use in this context is limited.
Musculoskeletal conditions: Some practitioners have used ozone therapy as an adjunct treatment for musculoskeletal conditions like osteoarthritis and herniated discs. It is believed to have anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties, but further research is required.
Cancer support: Ozone IV therapy has been explored as a complementary therapy for cancer treatment. It is suggested to have immune-stimulating effects and potential benefits in enhancing the efficacy of conventional cancer treatments. However, the evidence supporting its use in cancer care is limited and controversial.
What is Ozone IV Therapy Using Saline?
Ozone IV therapy with a saline drip refers to the administration of ozone gas along with a saline solution through intravenous infusion. This method combines ozone therapy with the hydration benefits of a saline drip.
In this procedure, ozone gas is generated using a medical-grade ozone generator. The ozone gas is then mixed with a sterile saline solution, creating an ozone-saline mixture. This mixture is then infused into the patient’s bloodstream through an intravenous line, similar to a regular saline drip.
The rationale behind combining ozone with a saline drip is to enhance the hydration and detoxification effects of the therapy. Saline solution, which contains a balanced concentration of salts and minerals, helps replenish fluid levels in the body and promotes hydration. The addition of ozone gas is believed to provide additional therapeutic effects, such as immune stimulation and potential antimicrobial properties.
Ozone therapy should only be performed by trained medical professionals in a controlled clinical setting. It is essential to consult with a qualified healthcare provider who can evaluate your specific condition and determine if ozone therapy is appropriate for you.
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