When it comes to chronic illnesses, it is very important to understand the nuances and distinctions between different conditions. There are two commonly misunderstood conditions: fibromyalgia and multiple sclerosis (MS).
Although both conditions can cause significant pain and affect a person’s quality of life, they are distinct in their origins, symptoms, and treatment approaches. By exploring the differences between fibromyalgia and multiple sclerosis, we hope to provide clarity and dispel misconceptions.
What Are the Differences?
Fibromyalgia: A Widespread Pain Disorder
Fibromyalgia is a chronic disorder characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, sleep disturbances, and cognitive difficulties. It affects approximately 10 million people in the United States alone, predominantly women. Unlike MS, fibromyalgia is not an autoimmune disorder caused by physical injury. The exact cause of fibromyalgia is unknown, and there is currently no cure for the condition.
Symptoms and Diagnosis of Fibromyalgia:
The primary symptom of fibromyalgia is chronic pain that is widespread throughout the body, often accompanied by tenderness in specific tender points. Fatigue and sleep disturbances are also prevalent, with individuals experiencing disrupted sleep patterns and waking up feeling unrefreshed. Cognitive difficulties, commonly known as “fibro fog,” can include problems with memory, concentration, and overall mental clarity.
Diagnosing fibromyalgia can be challenging as there are no specific laboratory tests or imaging studies available to confirm the condition. Instead, doctors rely on a combination of clinical symptoms, a thorough medical history, and physical examination to make an accurate diagnosis. The American College of Rheumatology has established criteria, including widespread pain for at least three months and the presence of tender points, to aid in the diagnosis of fibromyalgia.
Multiple Sclerosis: A Complex Autoimmune Disease
Multiple sclerosis (MS), on the other hand, is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the central nervous system (CNS). It occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks the protective covering of nerve fibers, disrupting the communication between the brain and the rest of the body. Unlike fibromyalgia, MS is considered an autoimmune disorder, and its exact cause remains unknown.
Symptoms and Diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis:
MS can manifest in a variety of symptoms that vary widely among individuals. Common symptoms include fatigue, difficulty walking, numbness or tingling in the limbs, muscle weakness, coordination problems, blurred vision, and cognitive impairment. The severity and progression of symptoms can also differ from person to person.
Diagnosing MS is a complex process that often involves multiple tests and evaluations. Doctors may use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans to detect characteristic lesions in the CNS, perform a lumbar puncture to analyze cerebrospinal fluid, and consider the patient’s medical history and clinical presentation. Collaboration between neurologists and other specialists is crucial to making an accurate diagnosis.
What Are the Treatment Approaches?
Since fibromyalgia and multiple sclerosis have distinct underlying causes, their treatment approaches differ significantly. In fibromyalgia management, a multimodal approach is typically recommended. This may include a combination of medications, such as analgesics, antidepressants, and anticonvulsants, along with lifestyle modifications like exercise, stress reduction techniques, and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT).
For multiple sclerosis, the focus is on managing symptoms, slowing disease progression, and reducing relapses. Disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) are commonly prescribed to modify the immune response and reduce inflammation in MS. Other treatment options include symptomatic medications for specific symptoms, physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech therapy to manage any functional impairments.
Regenerative Medicine for Fibromyalgia and Multiple Sclerosis
Regenerative medicine is a field of medicine that focuses on developing and using techniques to repair, replace, or regenerate damaged or diseased cells, tissues, or organs. It involves the use of various biological materials, such as stem cells, growth factors, and tissue engineering, to restore normal function in the body.
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy is a specific approach within regenerative medicine that utilizes mesenchymal stem cells, which are a type of adult stem cell. These cells are found in various tissues, such as bone marrow, adipose tissue (fat), and umbilical cord tissue.
MSCs have the ability to differentiate into different cell types, including bone cells, cartilage cells, muscle cells, and fat cells. They also possess anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties, making them particularly promising for therapeutic use.
The therapeutic potential of MSCs lies in their ability to promote tissue repair and regeneration through several mechanisms. These include the secretion of bioactive molecules that stimulate the growth of new blood vessels (angiogenesis), modulation of the immune response, promotion of cell survival, and differentiation into specific cell types.
Stem cell therapy has similar helpful mechanisms for both fibromyalgia and multiple sclerosis, but what are the specific details to each?
How Can Stem Cell Therapy Help Fibromyalgia?
Anti-inflammatory effects: Stem cells have the potential to reduce inflammation in the body, which could help alleviate the symptoms of fibromyalgia. They release a range of anti-inflammatory molecules that can dampen the immune response. These include cytokines such as interleukin-10 (IL-10), which is known for its potent anti-inflammatory properties. IL-10 can inhibit the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, reduce the activation of immune cells, and promote the generation of regulatory immune cells.
Tissue regeneration: Stem cells can differentiate into various cell types, and they have the ability to regenerate damaged tissues or promote the repair of affected areas by secreting a variety of growth factors, cytokines, and other bioactive molecules that support tissue repair.
Modulation of the immune system: Stem cells help to regulate the immune response, potentially impacting the immune dysfunction often observed in fibromyalgia patients. By reducing inflammation and modulating the immune system, MSCs create a more favorable environment for tissue repair processes to occur.
How Can Stem Cell Therapy Help Multiple Sclerosis?
Immunomodulation: Stem cells have immunomodulatory properties, meaning they can regulate and modify the immune response to potentially help reduce the inflammation and damage associated with MS. They can suppress excessive immune system activity, including the inflammatory response directed against the myelin sheath.
Anti-inflammatory effects: Stem cells have been shown to release anti-inflammatory molecules and factors and can dampen the inflammatory response and promote an environment that is less damaging to the central nervous system (CNS).
Promotion of tissue repair and regeneration: Stem cells have the ability to differentiate into various cell types, including neuronal and glial cells and may contribute to the repair and regeneration of damaged tissue. Additionally, MSCs can produce growth factors and other molecules that support the survival and growth of existing neurons and oligodendrocytes.
Modulation of autoimmune response: In MS, the immune system mistakenly attacks the myelin sheath, leading to nerve damage. MSCs may help modulate the autoimmune response by suppressing autoreactive immune cells and promoting the development of regulatory T cells (Tregs). Tregs play a crucial role in maintaining immune tolerance and preventing excessive immune reactions.
Neuroprotection: MSCs may exert neuroprotective effects by reducing oxidative stress, promoting the production of neurotrophic factors (such as nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor), and inhibiting cell death pathways. These actions can help protect neurons and prevent further damage to the CNS.
Those who may have symptoms of either fibromyalgia or multiple sclerosis should see their primary specialist to have appropriate diagnostic testing completed. This will best determine what therapeutic options they have to manage their condition and promote a healthier quality of life. If you would like to learn more about treatment options for either MS or Fibromyalgia, contact us at Stemedix today!
Stem cell therapy is a type of regenerative medicine that involves using stem cells to promote the repair, regeneration, or replacement of damaged or diseased cells, tissues, or organs in the body. Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that have the ability to develop into many different types of cells, such as muscle, bone, or cartilage cells, depending on the signals they receive in the body. In this article, we will discuss everything stem cell therapy including, the Stem Cell Therapy cost in 2023!
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a type of adult stem cell that can be found in various tissues in the body, including bone marrow, adipose tissue (fat), and umbilical cord tissue. These cells have the ability to differentiate into many different types of cells, including bone, cartilage, muscle, and fat cells.
In addition to their differentiation potential, MSCs have been found to possess immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties, which make them an attractive candidate for use in regenerative medicine and cell-based therapies.
Stem cell therapy has shown promise in treating a wide range of conditions, including degenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s, autoimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis, and various types of injuries and tissue damage. The therapy works by promoting the body’s natural healing processes and replacing or repairing damaged cells, tissues, or organs with new, healthy cells.
Why Do Patients Explore the Option of Stem Cell Therapy?
Patients may explore stem cell therapy for a variety of reasons, depending on their individual circumstances and medical needs. Here are some of the common reasons why patients may explore stem cell therapy:
Treatment of chronic conditions: Stem cell therapy may hold promise for treating a wide range of chronic conditions, including neurodegenerative conditions such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s, autoimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis, and various types of injuries and tissue damage.
Pain relief: Stem cell therapy may help to alleviate pain associated with conditions such as arthritis, back pain, and joint pain. By promoting tissue regeneration and repair, stem cell therapy can help to reduce inflammation and improve mobility.
Avoidance of surgery: For some patients, stem cell therapy may offer an alternative to surgery for conditions such as joint injuries or degenerative conditions. Stem cell therapy may be less invasive and have a shorter recovery time than surgical interventions.
Improvement in quality of life: Patients who are experiencing limitations in their mobility or other activities of daily living due to chronic conditions may explore stem cell therapy as a way to improve their quality of life and overall well-being.
It’s important to note that while stem cell therapy holds promise, it’s important to consult with a qualified healthcare provider to discuss the potential benefits, risks, and limitations of stem cell therapy for your specific condition.
How Much Does Stem Cell Therapy Cost?
Patients seeking relief from their conditions are exploring what regenerative medicine, also known as stem cell therapy, may offer but also how much these therapies are. It is important to be sure you are receiving a quality option for the health investment.
Most insurances will not cover treatments deemed alternative, including regenerative medicine, so these therapies are considered out of pocket. Stem cell therapy in the United States varies depending on the clinic, the location, and the physician performing the procedure. Since the treatment types and requirements vary widely, the cost can, too.
On average, adult Stem Cell therapy cost in 2023 in the U.S. range from $5,000 to $15,000.
Some clinics will offer financing options and others may also include travel accommodations for those having to travel.
How Do You Find a Quality Provider for Stem Cell Therapy?
When it comes to stem cell treatment, it’s important to ensure that you’re receiving quality care to maximize the potential benefits and minimize the risks. Here are some things to look for to ensure you’re getting quality stem cell treatment:
Credentials of the provider: Make sure that the provider administering the stem cell therapy is licensed and certified in their respective field. You can verify this by checking their credentials with the appropriate regulatory body.
Treatment protocols: The clinic should have established protocols for administering stem cell therapy that comply with industry standards and regulations. They should be able to provide you with detailed information on the treatment process, including the source and type of stem cells used.
Clinical experience: Choose a clinic with a track record of success and experience in administering stem cell therapy. You can ask for patient testimonials or case studies to verify their claims.
Safety measures: Stem cell therapy should be conducted in a sterile and safe environment to minimize the risk of infection or other complications. The clinic should follow strict safety protocols, including the use of sterile equipment and a clean treatment area.
Follow-up process: Quality stem cell therapy should include ongoing care and follow-up to monitor your progress and ensure that you’re getting the most benefit from the treatment. The clinic should have a follow-up plan in place to track your progress and make any necessary adjustments to the treatment plan.
It’s important to do your research and ask questions before committing to stem cell therapy. You can also consult with your healthcare provider to get their input and recommendations. Some patients are exploring options of stem cell therapies internationally. Traveling internationally for the treatment will include costs of flights, hotels, and overall travel expenses on top of the cost of treatment. But patients should consider differences in regulations, quality control, and medical practices. For example:
Lack of regulatory oversight: Different countries may have varying regulations for stem cell therapy, and some may have less strict oversight than others. This can make it difficult for patients to know if the treatments they receive overseas are safe and effective.
Quality control issues: Stem cell therapies may vary in quality depending on the facility where they are administered, the source of the cells, and the methods used to prepare and administer the cells. Overseas facilities may not have the same quality control standards as those in the patient’s home country.
Safety concerns: Stem cell therapies carry the risk of infection, immune reactions, and other complications, particularly if the cells are not prepared or administered correctly. Patients who receive stem cell therapy overseas may be at greater risk of complications if the facility is not properly equipped to manage potential adverse events.
Difficulty accessing follow-up care: Patients who receive stem cell therapy overseas may have difficulty accessing follow-up care or medical attention if complications arise after they return home.
The Stem Cell Therapy cost in 2023 may be expensive, but well-informed patients who undergo the treatment often find the benefits prove to be worth their investment, especially in cases where they no longer require ongoing prescriptions and pain medications. Talk to a qualifying provider to see if this alternative medicine may provide you with the opportunity for a better quality of life you are seeking.
Diabetes is one of the most common conditions in the world, affecting more than 37 million people in the United States alone.
Diabetes is a chronic condition that affects your body’s ability to process glucose, resulting in high blood sugar levels. An estimated 96 million people have prediabetes, meaning they could soon be diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes.
To avoid a diabetes diagnosis, it is important that you can recognize early indicators of the disease. The following are some signs that may mean you have diabetes:
One of the earliest signs of diabetes is excessive and unusual urination. When you have diabetes, your body does not use sugar properly. The sugar collects in your blood, and your kidneys go into overdrive to remove it from the body. Your overworking kidneys lead to the constant urge to urinate.
With increased urination, you will start to experience increased thirst. Constant urination can cause your body to become dehydrated, and you will feel parched, even if you drink an adequate amount for your body weight.
Another early indicator of diabetes is extreme and unintentional weight loss. If you’ve noticed that you are losing a lot of weight without really trying to, you may have diabetes. For some people, this can be as much as 10 pounds in one month.
This weight loss occurs because your body is not processing glucose as it should be. Your cells become starved for glucose or energy and begin to find it elsewhere, causing you to burn fat at a rapid pace.
If you are experiencing these symptoms or other concerns, you may have diabetes or prediabetes. To get a proper diagnosis, speak to your regular physician. There are many treatment options for diabetes.
Some are exploring regenerative medicine, also known as stem cell therapy. Stem cell therapy for diabetes is a potential treatment approach that involves the use of stem cells to generate new insulin-producing cells that can help regulate blood sugar levels in people with diabetes.
Stem cells are cells that have the ability to differentiate into different cell types and can also self-renew and studies have shown that stem cells can differentiate into insulin-producing cells.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic and progressive neurological disease that affects the central nervous system (CNS), which includes the brain and spinal cord. MS occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks the myelin, a fatty material that surrounds and protects nerve fibers, causing inflammation and damage to the myelin and the nerve fibers themselves. Many people often wonder ” Is Multiple Sclerosis hereditary? Keep Reading to find out!
The symptoms of MS can vary widely depending on the location and extent of the damage to the CNS. Common symptoms include fatigue, weakness, balance problems, difficulty walking, numbness or tingling sensations, blurred or double vision, muscle stiffness and spasms, bladder and bowel problems, and cognitive impairment.
How is Multiple Sclerosis Diagnosed?
In general, the diagnosis of MS is made based on a combination of clinical symptoms, physical examination, and diagnostic tests, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and cerebrospinal fluid analysis. While these tests cannot definitively determine the cause of MS, they can help to identify characteristic patterns of damage in the CNS that are consistent with the disease.
The identifying characteristic patterns of damage in the central nervous system (CNS) for multiple sclerosis (MS) can be seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and include the following:
Multiple lesions: MS typically causes multiple areas of damage, or lesions, in the CNS. These lesions can appear in various regions of the brain and spinal cord and are often visible on MRI scans as bright or dark spots.
White matter damage: MS primarily affects the myelin sheath, which is a fatty substance that surrounds nerve fibers in the white matter of the brain and spinal cord. The damage to the myelin results in the formation of lesions that can be seen on MRI scans.
Inflammation: MS is caused by an abnormal immune response that results in inflammation in the CNS. This inflammation can be seen on MRI scans as areas of increased brightness, indicating increased blood flow and immune cell activity.
Symmetry: MS lesions tend to occur in a symmetric pattern, meaning they appear in similar locations on both sides of the brain or spinal cord.
Time course: MS lesions can appear and disappear over time, and new lesions may develop while old lesions may heal. This pattern of damage over time is a key diagnostic feature of MS.
Overall, the combination of multiple lesions, white matter damage, inflammation, symmetric involvement, and a relapsing and remitting time course seen on MRI scans can help to distinguish MS from other neurological conditions that can cause similar symptoms.
Is Multiple Sclerosis Caused by Heredity or Environmental?
Multiple sclerosis (MS) has a complex etiology and while the cause of MS is not fully understood, research suggests that a combination of genetic and environmental factors may contribute to its development. Currently, there are no definitive tests to determine whether the condition is caused by genetic or environmental factors alone.
People with a family history of MS, certain infections, and vitamin D deficiency are thought to be at increased risk for the disease. Having a close relative with MS, such as a parent or sibling, does increase a person’s risk of developing the disease. However, the risk is still relatively low, with most people with a family history of MS not developing the disease themselves.
While there has been no single gene identified as the cause of the disease responsible for MS and appears to be complex and multifactorial. Genetic testing can be used to identify certain genes that may increase the risk of developing MS but it is not directly inherited in a simple Mendelian fashion, where a single gene is responsible for the disease and follows a predictable pattern of inheritance. Instead, it is believed that multiple genes, each contributing a small effect, interact with environmental factors to increase the risk of developing MS.
Environmental factors, such as exposure to certain infections, smoking, and low vitamin D levels, have also been linked to an increased risk of developing MS. However, it can be challenging to determine the precise environmental factors that contribute to the disease, as many factors may be involved, and their effects may be difficult to measure.
Overall, while genetics can play a role in the development of MS, it is a complex disease with multiple factors contributing to its onset, and more research is needed to fully understand its genetic basis.
Treatments for Multiple Sclerosis
MS is a lifelong disease with no known cure, but there are treatments available to help manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. Traditional medicine may include medications to reduce inflammation and modulate the immune system, physical therapy to improve mobility and balance, occupational therapy to help with activities of daily living. But some are also exploring regenerative medicine.
What is Regenerative Medicine for MS?
Regenerative medicine, also known as stem cell therapy, is an interdisciplinary field that seeks to replace or regenerate damaged or diseased tissues. This new alternative medicine has the potential to help slow down progression and manage symptoms.
Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that can develop into different types of cells in the body. The most common stem cell used in therapy today is the mesenchymal stem cell which can be derived from adipose (fat), umbilical cord, or bone marrow tissues.
In MS, stem cell therapy involves using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to regenerate damaged myelin and nerve fibers in the CNS. These MSCs can modulate the immune response and reduce inflammation, which can help to prevent further damage to the myelin sheath that surrounds and protects neurons. Studies have shown that stem cell therapy can improve neurological function and reduce disease activity in some patients with MS.
While regenerative medicine approaches for MS are still in the early stages of development, they hold great promise for the future treatment of this complex disease. To learn more about Regenerative Medicine and the different options for Multiple Sclerosis ( MS ) contact a care coordinator today at Stemedix!
The National Institute of Health estimates that nearly 250,000 people in the United States are currently living with a spinal cord injury (SCI). Most often a result of an accident, SCIs typically result in the loss of neurons and axonal damage resulting in the loss of function.
SCIs can be divided into two distinct phases, the initial physical injury and the secondary injury which typically occurs hours to days later. In most cases of SCI, damage to the axonal and tissue damage is caused by compression and/or contusion to the spinal cord. The secondary SCI injury occurs in the hours and days after the initial injury and is characterized by persistent inflammation, glial scar formation, demyelination of surrounding neurons, and death of cells. Over time, research has demonstrated that, in all aspects of secondary injury, the inflammatory response is the major cause and leads to widespread cell damage and lesion expansion.
Recent research has demonstrated that stem cells, including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), neural stem/progenitor, and embryonic stem cells, possess anti-inflammatory properties and promote functional recovery after SCI by inducing macrophages M1/M2 phenotype transformation.
In this review, Cheng and He discuss the general feature of macrophages in response to SCI, the phenotype, and function of macrophages in SCI, and the effects of stem cells on macrophage polarization and its role in stem cell-based therapies for SCI.
Macrophages accumulate in and around an SCI and play a very important role in neuroinflammation. Considering that recent research demonstrates the different, but important, contributions M1 and M2 macrophages make toward repairing tissue damage, this process is thought to be a promising therapeutic treatment for controlling the inflammation occurring after initial SCI.
According to this review, there are both positive and negative effects of macrophages on tissue repair and regeneration after an SCI. Interestingly, some studies show that infiltrating macrophages has harmful effects, especially in the early stages of an SCI. On the other hand, studies also indicated that macrophages have beneficial effects on tissue repair. These results included findings indicating that activated macrophages could provide a beneficial microenvironment that is good for the regeneration of sensory axons.
While the exact reason for the opposite effects of macrophages on the pathological process of SCI is not yet known, it’s thought to be because of the different phenotypes of macrophages – M1 (classical activation) and M2 (alternative activation).
Additionally, studies have demonstrated that M2 macrophages are important for efficient remyelination after CNS injury, while M1 macrophages hinder neurogenesis and inhibit neurite outgrowth and induce growth cone collapse of cortical neurons.
Considering these findings, the authors point out that polarization of macrophages to M2 is beneficial – and often preferred to M1- to facilitate the recovery after SCI. These findings have also demonstrated stem cell transplantation to hold tremendous potential for therapeutic uses in the treatment/recovery after SCI.
There is accumulating evidence indicating that the current preference of M2 macrophages compared to M1 macrophages correlates with remission of SCI in cases receiving SCI interventions including anti-inflammatory therapies and stem cells. The authors of this review conclude that while the exact process by which stem cells regulate macrophage polarization has yet to be determined, stem cells can alter macrophage polarization and promote functional recovery postinjury.
Currently, it’s estimated that over 1.3 million people in the U.S., and 10 million people around the world, are living with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). IBD is a chronic and recurrent disease characterized by inflammation of the tissues of the digestive tract. Two specific diseases included under the term IBD include Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC).
While the exact cause of IBD has yet to be determined, research seems to suggest abnormal activation of the immune system, genetic susceptibility, and altered intestinal flora resulting from mucus barrier defects play some type of role in the pathogenesis of this disease. Currently, a complete IBD treatment or cure exists. Recent research has also demonstrated that adults with IBD are more likely to suffer from other chronic conditions, including diabetes, arthritis, lung cancer, and heart disease.
Clinical trials using stem cell therapy have demonstrated promising results for the potential treatment of IBD, including long-term remission in some patients.
In this review, Zhang et al. review the upcoming stem cell transplantation methods for clinical application and the results of ongoing clinical trials exploring the use of stem cell transplantation as a potential treatment for IBD.
Specific stem cells, known as hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), have been shown to be particularly effective when used as a therapeutic treatment. HSCs are isolated from blood, bone marrow, and cord blood that migrate directly to damaged mucosal tissues. Initially used in patients with IBD because of other hematologic indications, including leukemia and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, the use of HSC therapy (HSCT) demonstrated improvement in intestinal lesions. Further study using HSCT showed that some patients with UC and CD demonstrated sustained clinical and endoscopic improvement. The authors point out that while these limited clinical trials have demonstrated promising results, the observed risk of relapse currently prevents HSCT from being classified as an effective treatment and calls for larger samples and longer-term efficacy observations.
Another stem cell treatment currently being evaluated for the treatment of IBD is the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). When injected intravenously, MSCs demonstrate the ability to reach the injured area of the intestine, colonize mucosa to control inflammation, improve microcirculation, and repair damaged tissues. A systematic review conducted by Lalu et al. found that the use of MSCs did not show significant side effects and was a relatively safe therapeutic treatment option.
Zhang et al. conclude that the significant advance in stem cell research made over the past twenty years has made them a promising therapeutic option for the treatment of IBD. Although a limited number of clinical trials have confirmed the efficacy of specific stem cells, specifically HSC and MSCs in IBD, the authors point out that the current treatments need to be improved and further research must be conducted in order to fully understand the complexity associated with the condition.
While this review focuses primarily on the use of HSC and MSC, Zhang et al. call for continued preclinical exploration of other cell therapy methods with the goal of improving the quality of life of IBD patients.
This website and its contents are not intended to treat, cure, diagnose, or prevent any disease. Stemedix, Inc. shall not be held liable for the medical claims made by patient testimonials or videos. They are not to be viewed as a guarantee for each individual. The efficacy for some products presented have not been confirmed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
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