The Difference Between Stroke and Heart Attack

The Difference Between Stroke and Heart Attack

Hopefully, you will never experience a stroke or a heart attack, but it is important to know the differences between these two potentially fatal medical emergencies. The most important similarity may be that if you or someone you know is showing the symptoms of a stroke or a heart attack, time is crucial. Getting immediate medical help increases the chance of survival and recovery.

Heart Attacks Explained

Heart disease is the number one cause of death in the U.S. Heart disease can lead to a heart attack, also known as a myocardial infarction. 

The term “heart attack” refers to damage of the heart muscle, usually caused by a lack of blood flow. If a blood clot forms in one of the arteries that supply blood to the heart, it can block blood flow and deprive the heart of the nutrients it needs to function.

As the heart weakens from lack of nourishment, chest pain and other symptoms may occur. Warning signs of a heart attack include:

  • Fatigue
  • A sense of impending doom
  • Nausea
  • Sweating
  • Pain radiating down the left arm
  • Shortness of breath
  • Feeling lightheaded
  • Pain or numbness in the upper body
  • Stomach pain
  • Changes in heartbeat
  • A bluish tint to the hands, feet, or lips
  • Pain in the jaw or between the shoulder blades

Men and women tend to experience a different set of symptoms; however, warning signs can be different for every person. In some cases, there is no warning at all. This is referred to as a “silent heart attack.”

Stroke Explained

Like heart attacks, strokes are usually caused by a blood clot that blocks blood flow in the arteries. In this case, the blockage affects the brain. Deprived of nourishment, a section of the brain dies, resulting in a stroke.

There are three types of strokes. Ischemic stroke is caused by a blood clot, and it is the most common type. Bleeding in the brain, usually from injury or aneurysm, may cause a hemorrhagic stroke. A transient ischemic attack is caused when an artery that feeds the brain is restricted but not blocked.

Warning signs of stroke are typically less painful and more subtle than warning signs of a heart attack. They may include:

  • Dizziness
  • Speech difficulties
  • Arm or leg weakness
  • Confusion
  • Vision loss
  • Facial drooping
  • Tingling or numbness in extremities
  • Sudden incontinence

The chances of surviving and recovering from a stroke depend on what part and how much of the brain was affected. Immediate medical help increases the chance for recovery.

Stroke and heart attack are both age-related health problems. Longer life spans mean the conditions have become more common. Unfortunately, many patients still end up with some type of long-term disability. 

The Future of Regenerative Medicine

There is hope that regenerative medicine, also known as stem cell therapy, may offer an option to help repair the damage caused by a stroke or heart attack. As medicine continues to advance, the damages of these serious conditions may become less permanent. Patients are exploring the beneficial opportunities that stem cells hold. If you would like to learn more contact a care coordinator today!

Does Stem Cell Therapy Help Stroke Patients?

Does Stem Cell Therapy Help Stroke Patients?

Every 40 seconds, someone in the United States suffers a stroke. These medical emergencies are one of the most common causes of long-term disability in this country. These events, which usually result from clots that prevent blood from flowing to part of the brain, can dramatically impact the lives of both patients and their families.

Strokes can cause a range of impairments in patients, all of which can lower a patient’s quality of life. Patients can experience problems with motor control, memory, speech, and a range of other areas. Because the brain doesn’t regenerate brain cells, it can be difficult to fully recover from a stroke’s effects.

Traditionally, treatment plans for stroke patients have included a combination of several different physical therapies, including occupational and speech therapy. While this treatment method can help restore some lost functionality by rewiring the brain, there seems to be a limit on the effectiveness of this treatment, which tends to depend on the severity of the stroke.

However, recent research suggests that stem cell therapy may be able to improve long-term outcomes for stroke patients. When combined with physical therapy, stem cells can offer stroke patients significant relief from their symptoms.

How Stem Cells Are Used to Treat Stroke Patients

Because stem cell therapy is still relatively new in treating stroke patients, several studies are currently investigating different methods for administering stem cells. These research projects will determine which strategies are most effective for different types of stroke patients. 

For example, one study looks at how stem cells isolated from patients who have suffered strokes can potentially help regenerate brain tissue. In another study, scientists have examined the effectiveness of extracellular vesicles, which are substances derived from stem cells. Both of these studies show a great deal of promise for stroke patients. 

One promising study is investigating injecting stem cells into the damaged area of the stroke patient’s brain. Once these special cells are in the brain, they can potentially start regrowing brain cells.

Benefits of Stem Cell Therapy

When used in conjunction with physical therapies, stem cells can improve neurological stroke symptoms, including muscle control, vision problems, and speech deficiencies. They also show promise in suppressing brain inflammation, one of the significant obstacles to recovering from a stroke.

While there is no “cure” for stroke patients, stem cell therapy offers an exciting new frontier in helping their recovery and improving their quality of life. If you would like to learn more contact a care coordinator today!

Evaluating the Effectiveness of Mesenchymal Stem Cells As An Option For Stroke Therapy

Evaluating the Effectiveness of Mesenchymal Stem Cells As An Option For Stroke Therapy

Promising early research shows that when introduced into a brain injured by stroke, extracellular vesicles (EVs), also known as exosomes, a bioactive substance secreted by mesenchymal stem cells, have been associated with improved blood vessels creation, increased formation of neurons, and enhanced preservation of the neurological structure; these findings demonstrate a promising stem cell-derived stroke therapy that serves as an alternative approach to current stem cell infusion treatment options.

With nearly 14 million people suffering strokes each year, strokes continue to be the leading cause of physical disability among adults; between 25 percent and 50 percent of stroke survivors are left with significant and debilitating disabilities.

Because mesenchymal stem cells, or MSCs, secrete extracellular vesicles thought to reduce inflammation, enhance autophagy, and promote regeneration of damaged cells, researchers evaluating potential regenerative strategies for stroke-induced neurologic deficits have identified these MSC-derived EVs as a viable option for stroke therapy. 

Although the reported beneficial effects of EV therapy has been observed in studies completed on animals, there is an increasing number of clinical studies currently being conducted on humans that suggest MSC EV stem cell therapy is a potentially safe and effective therapeutic option to improve outcomes in several various human applications. 

Specifically, this EV-mediated therapy appears to offer an off-the-shelf treatment option that is potentially effective in crossing the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) while also avoiding cell-related problems, including the formation of tumors and infarcts resulting from vascular occlusions, or blood clots, consistent with those observed in acute ischemic stroke.

While there appears to be a promising upside to MSC EV therapy for the treatment of stroke, studies are on-going to discover the optimal therapeutic treatment of stroke patients. Some areas to continue researching are the optimal time and best mode of application of EVs in stroke patients (most stroke-related recovery occurs in the first few months following the stroke).

As research continues into the effectiveness of MSC-EV therapy for stroke, early indications are that EVs derived from mesenchymal stem cells could be a viable cell-free treatment option for patients recovering from a severe stroke.

Source: (2019, March 12). Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicle …. Retrieved December 4, 2020, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6422999/

High-Intensity Step Training Can Help Stroke Survivors

High-Intensity Step Training Can Help Stroke Survivors

A stroke occurs when the blood supply to the brain becomes blocked. When the brain cells cannot get sufficient oxygen, they may die off, resulting in lasting symptoms such as difficulty walking and speaking. Although some challenges may be permanent, there are a number of rehabilitative therapies that can help stroke survivors recover as much function as possible. This will shed light on how High-Intensity step training can help stroke survivors.

One form of rehabilitation which has recently emerged as an effective therapy for boosting walking skills is high-step training. While rehabilitative measures typically focus on low-intensity walking to help stroke survivors restore balance and walking skills, experts believed this approach isn’t challenging enough to help patients navigate real-world scenarios. To test their theory, a research team at Indiana University School of Medicine in Indianapolis compared the patient outcomes in low-impact training programs against those from a higher-intensity stepping program.

Participants were involved in one of three programs: high-intensity steps with variable tasks, such as steps on uneven surfaces, inclines, or over obstacles while moving forward; high-intensity steps only moving forward; or low-intensity steps with variable tasks. Stroke survivors in both high-intensity groups were able to walk faster and farther than those in the low-intensity group.

In the high-intensity groups, the majority of participants (57% to 80%) made noteworthy clinical gains, but less than a third of participants made the same improvements in the low-intensity group. Participants in the high-intensity group also reported improved balance and confidence.

Although rehabilitative walking programs have historically taken a more gradual approach, these findings suggest that pushing patients to walk further, faster, and across a variety of conditions could challenge the nervous system more effectively. In doing so, stroke survivors may improve mobility and witness noticeable improvements in a shorter amount of time. All in all High-intensity step training can help stroke survivors.

Umbilical Cord Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Restore Function After Stroke

Umbilical Cord Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Restore Function After Stroke

An ischemic stroke is a devastating event. An ischemic stroke is caused when a blood clot blocks blood flow to a portion of the brain. If the blood cannot deliver oxygen and nutrients, brain cells in the affected area die. Whatever functions that area of the brain once performed are now lost—brain cells do not regenerate the same way as other cells do.

Not surprisingly, researchers are trying to find ways to restore dead brain cells so that patients can regain function. Stem cells are one of the most promising options in this pursuit. Stem cells can reduce brain damage caused by ischemia (lack of blood flow, nutrients, and oxygen). Moreover, stem cells can help animals with stroke regain neurological function.

Scientists have wondered, however, whether mesenchymal stem cells taken from the umbilical cord can achieve the same effects. Umbilical cord tissue is plentiful and the cells taken from the umbilical cord have many incredible properties.

Dr. Zhang and researchers in his group extracted mesenchymal stem cells from umbilical cord tissue collected from humans. This umbilical cord tissue is usually thrown away after a baby is born, but researchers have been collecting this material because it is rich in mesenchymal stem cells. The researchers then created ischemic strokes in rats by blocking one of the arteries to the brain. They then used stem cells to try to block the damaging effect of stroke in these rats.

The stem cells were given to the rats intravenously. The stem cells moved from the bloodstream into the brain and collected in the area of the stroke. Some of the stem cells actually became new brain cells in the damaged area. Moreover, rats treated with stem cells had better physical functioning than animals who did not receive stem cell treatment.

While this study was performed in rats, the implications for humans are profound. This work shows that mesenchymal stem cells taken from the umbilical cord are capable of improving function after stroke. This is exited news since it is much easier to obtain stem cells from umbilical cord tissue that it is from bone marrow (which requires an invasive procedure).

 

Reference: Zhang, Lei et al. (2017). Neural differentiation of human Wharton’s jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells improves the recovery of neurological function after transplantation in ischemic stroke rats. Neural Regeneration Research. 2017 Jul; 12(7): 1103–1110.

Fighting Against Tissue Injury: Stem Cell Exosomes

Fighting Against Tissue Injury: Stem Cell Exosomes

Tissue injury is common to many human diseases. Cirrhosis results in damaged, fibrotic liver tissue. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and related lung diseases cause damage to lung tissue. A heart attack damages heart tissue, just as a stroke damages brain tissue. In some cases, such as minor tissue injury, the damaged tissue can repair itself. Over time, however, tissue damage becomes too great and the organ itself can fail. For example, long-standing cirrhosis can cause liver failure.

One area of active research is to find ways to protect tissue from injury or, if an injury occurs, to help the tissue repair itself before the damage becomes permanent and irreversible. Indeed, tissue repair is one of the main focuses of regenerative medicine. Likewise, one of the most promising approaches in the field of regenerative medicine is stem cell therapy. Researchers are learning that when it comes to protecting against tissue injury and promoting tissue repair, exosomes harvested from stem cells are perhaps the most attractive potential therapeutic.

Why are stem cell exosomes so promising? Exosomes are small packets of molecules that stem cells release to help the cells around them grow and flourish. While one could inject stem cells as a treatment for diseases (and they certainly do work for that purpose) it may be more effective in some cases to inject exosomes directly. So instead of relying on the stem cells to produce exosomes once they are injected into the body, stem cells can create substantial amounts of exosomes in the laboratory. Exosomes with desired properties could be concentrated and safely injected in large quantities, resulting in a potentially more potent treatment for the disease.

Indeed, researchers have shown that extracellular vesicles (exosomes and their cousins, microvesicles) can be collected from stem cells and used to treat a variety of tissue injuries in laboratory animals.

Just a few examples of this research:

  • Exosomes from umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells were able to accelerate skin damage repair in rats who had suffered skin burns.
  • Exosomes from the same type of stem cell protected the lungs and reduced lung blood pressure in mice with pulmonary hypertension.
  • Exosomes from endothelial progenitor cells protected the kidney from damage caused by a lack of blood flow to the organ.

In this growing field of Regenerative Medicine, research is constant and building as new science evolves from stem cell studies. Researchers are closing in on the specific exosomes that may be helpful in treating human diseases caused by tissue injury.

 

Reference: Zhang et al. (2016). Focus on Extracellular Vesicles: Therapeutic Potential of Stem Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2016 Feb; 17(2): 174.

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