Peptides with Neurotrophic Properties: Promising Therapeutics for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Alzheimer’s Disease.

Peptides with Neurotrophic Properties: Promising Therapeutics for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Alzheimer’s Disease.

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are two of the more common neurodegenerative diseases, with nearly seven million people in the US living with the conditions in 2023. While AD is more prevalent than ALS, they are both characterized by the progressive loss of specific neurons and glial cells in the central nervous system.

Research has demonstrated that the onset and progression of neurodegenerative diseases appear to be delayed or improved by the application of neurotrophic factors and that the derived peptide factors from these neurotrophic factors have been found to potentially restore neuronal function, improve behavioral deficits, and prolong their survival.

In this review, Ciesler and Sari review the role of trophic peptides in the improvement of AD and ALS with the goal of developing a better understanding of potential therapies for these neurodegenerative diseases.

While neurodegenerative diseases, including AD and ALS, are well documented to result in debilitating loss of memory and motor function, respectively, the specific mechanisms of action in these diseases are yet to be fully understood. However, research has found that the potential underlying mechanisms can be divided into two categories. The first, which is unique to each neurodegenerative disease, is a specific trigger that activates cell death machinery and the second, which appears to be universal among neurodegenerative diseases, is a directorial process to complete death of a neuron.

While there are currently no effective drugs for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, treatments of the symptoms associated with neurodegenerative diseases include neuroprotective factors, encompassing neurotrophins, and neuroprotective peptides. The authors focus this review on NAP peptide derived from activity neuroprotective protein and ADNF-9 peptide derived from activity-dependent neurotrophic factor (ADNF); both of these peptides have been shown to enhance cell survival and outgrowth of dendrites in the form of D-acid analogues.

NAP’s parent protein, ADNP, is essential for brain development and was found to protect neurons against severe oxidative stress. Studies examining NAP have found them to protect against neurotoxins while not affecting cell division.  Considering these findings, NAP is now in phase II clinical trials with a primary focus on AD-related cognitive impairment. Additional studies are also evaluating the effects of NAP in ALS models associated with cytoskeletal dysfunction. NAP has been found to extend life span in ALS mouse models when administered prior to disease onset.

ADNF is released in response to vasoactive intestinal peptide that protects neurons from tetrodotoxin-induced cell death and is suggested to be essential for neuronal survival. ADNF-9 showed greater prevention of cell death associated with stress than other ADNF peptides; additional studies demonstrate that ADNF-9 suppressed SOD-1-mediated cell death. While prolonged survival of ALS mouse model was reported to be marginal, the authors highlight that the study did provide insight into a possible treatment for ALS. 

The authors also highlight colivelin, a hybrid synthetic peptide of ANDF-9 and humanin, which was found to provide neuroprotection against AD-related memory loss and have a more potent neuroprotective effect than humanin and ADNF-9 when they are tested alone against neurotoxicity.

Ciesler and Sari conclude that in contrast to neurotrophic factors these trophic peptides have the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier for efficacy and have potential for future treatment of ALS and AD.  

Source: “Neurotrophic Peptides: Potential Drugs for Treatment of Amyotrophic ….” 8 Apr. 2013,

How Does Stem Cell Therapy Work?

How Does Stem Cell Therapy Work?

Treatment of injuries and damage to organs and other tissues as a result of the aging process or conditions has often relied on managing symptoms. By offering painkillers and steroids, healthcare providers can keep you more comfortable, but they are not targeting the cause of the problem. This means you have to keep relying on medications. One option more people are exploring is regenerative medicine, also known as stem cell therapy. This type of regenerative medicine offers the chance to treat the underlying cause of the issue so that you can achieve lasting relief. In this article we will discuss how does stem cell therapy work?

What Is Stem Cell Therapy?

Stem cell therapy utilizes stem cells, which are those that create specialized cells. They can regenerate damaged or dying cells. Although you retain stem cells throughout your life, the aging process can make them less effective. This aging can lead to injuries that don’t heal completely, causing chronic pain and many other problems.  

The goal of stem cell therapy is to amplify your body’s natural healing processes. To do this, it relies on stem cells. 

In stem cell therapy, these cells are often harvested from the patient’s own body or from donors, and then administered to the affected area or systemically. The goal is to encourage tissue regeneration, repair damaged cells, and promote healing. Stem cells can differentiate into the specific cell types needed to replace or repair damaged tissues, making them a promising treatment for a wide range of conditions.

Stem cell therapy has shown potential in treating conditions such as heart disease, neurological disorders (e.g., Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease), autoimmune conditions, and orthopedic injuries

Benefits of Stem Cell Therapy

Stem cell therapy is a less invasive option than many other therapies. It requires the removal of stem cells from fat or bone marrow and then the injection of the prepared stem cells at the site of the damage. This not only makes it a viable option for those who can’t undergo surgery, but it also means the recovery process is shorter. 

Another benefit of stem cell therapy is that it helps reduce inflammation. When you get injured, your body responds by causing inflammation to prevent the spread of damaging agents while also helping remove pathogens and cell debris. Inflammation also helps prepare the area for the repair process. 

In some instances, however, inflammation doesn’t go away, leading to chronic pain. Inflammation also makes it more difficult for the wound to heal because the area is not receiving enough blood. 

Stem cell therapy helps reduce this inflammation, allowing oxygen and nutrients to make their way to the damaged area. Less inflammation results in less pain. 

Stem cell therapy is also a quick procedure. It can be done as an outpatient option, and it doesn’t require general anesthesia. Because most people benefit from adult stem cells, the procedure also avoids the need to worry about rejections or allergic reactions. 

What to Expect from the Stem Cell Therapy Procedure

The first thing you will need to do is reach out to your healthcare provider to see if you are a good candidate for stem cell therapy. Your provider will go through your medical history to see which types of stem cells you can benefit the most from. The kind of condition or injury you have will impact this choice. 

If you’re using your own stem cells, your healthcare provider will collect a sample from your bone marrow or fat. They then process them in a laboratory to isolate and concentrate them. In some cases, the process can involve centrifugation, filtering, and other options to help collect the highest number of stem cells. 

The next step is receiving the stem cells, which can take place intravenously, with an injection, as well as other administration techniques. 

After you receive the stem cells, your healthcare provider will monitor you to ensure there are no complications. They will also schedule follow-up phone calls to monitor how you are doing post-treatment. 

Most people can get right back to their daily activities with some minimal post-treatment guidelines without having to worry about long recovery times. 

Available Stem Cell Treatments

How does stem cell therapy work & what are the available treatments? Stem cells can help treat a variety of conditions. It’s helpful in treating cartilage regeneration and osteoarthritis because the stem cells can differentiate into chondrocytes, which are cells that maintain cartilage.

It’s also an option that can help with scar reduction and wound healing. For this procedure, stem cells derived from fat cells are a good option. They can help with tissue regeneration, potentially leading to healing chronic wounds and even the prevention of scarring. 

Stem cell therapy is also a good choice for neurodegenerative issues. It can help replace neurons and provide neuroprotective benefits, potentially leading to slowing down the disease’s progression. 

Stem cell therapy may also target ligament and tendon injuries, which are common in people who are very active. This type of therapy can help speed up the recovery process and might even be able to prevent the development of chronic pain issues that can affect mobility. 

Another way stem cell therapy is able to help is by treating autoimmune diseases. Most autoimmune diseases are impacted by inflammation, so an option like stem cell therapy, which helps reduce swelling, can be helpful. 

Choosing Stem Cell Therapy for Lasting Results

Stem cell therapy offers hope for the treatment of many types of conditions. By targeting the cause of pain and chronic injuries, like inflammation, you can avoid relying solely on pain medications, which only mask symptoms. Stem cell therapy makes it possible to have available options to help manage orthopedic injuries, neurodegenerative conditions, and much more. 

If you want to learn more about how does stem cell therapy work and not sure whether stem cell therapy is a good option for your needs, speak with a regenerative medicine specialist. They can let you know if you are a good candidate. 

8 Super Foods for Better Brainpower & Boosting Cognitive Function

8 Super Foods for Better Brainpower & Boosting Cognitive Function

What you eat has a huge impact on your overall health, including your cognitive function. Your brain is a powerhouse that needs a constant influx of nutrients to function at its best, and some foods offer more of those nutrients than others. By adding the right foods to your diet, you can give your brain the boost it needs. 

1. Fatty Fish for Omega-3 

Eating fatty fish like salmon, sardines, and mackerel offers your brain a good dose of omega-3. Omega-3 is critical for normal brain function as well as for its development throughout all of the stages of life. 

This fatty acid is present in the membranes of brain cells, making communication between them easier while also preserving them. Omega-3 also shows promise in improving brain function in people with memory problems, including Alzheimer’s, as well as those with mild cognitive impairment.

2. Leafy Greens for B Vitamins

Leafy greens like broccoli, spinach, and kale contain a large amount of B vitamins. These vitamins are essential for your brain health, helping boost the production of neurotransmitters, which are chemicals that deliver messages between neurons. Vitamin B9 helps with intracellular detoxification, as well as improving low moods. 

Leafy greens also add iron to your diet, which you need for energy. The brain uses more energy than any other organ, so encouraging healthy red blood cells by eating more iron is essential for its proper function.

Another benefit of leafy greens is they are packed with antioxidants, boosting cognitive function, mood, decision-making abilities, and so much more. They can do this by reducing or eliminating free radicals that cause damage.  

3. Berries for Reducing Cell Damage

Berries are full of flavonoids, including flavanol, which have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties that protect brain cells. Anthocyanins, which you find in red, blue, and purple berries, can cross the blood-brain barrier. They can protect the brain from diseases like cancer. 

Eating blueberries increases blood flow to many areas of the brain, including those that control memory. The aging process can also slow down when you regularly add berries to your diet. This is because berries help create new neurons in the brain. Berries are also able to reduce inflammation and make nerve cells more flexible. 

4. Whole Grains for Energy

Whole grains offer the energy your brain needs to stay healthy and function at its best. The fibers present in whole grains also aid in controlling blood pressure and reducing the chances of developing brain inflammation. 

Whole grains are also rich in vitamin E, which helps the brain remain flexible throughout life. It has the potential to help people who have mild to moderate Alzheimer’s because of the way it reduces oxidative stress. 

Vitamin E also helps regulate DHA; a type of omega-3 fatty acid crucial for brain function. In the brain, DHA forms DHA-PC, which is a component of neuron membranes. People with Alzheimer’s tend to have low levels of DHA-PC, so turning to vitamin E holds promise in its treatment. 

5. Seeds and Nuts for Anti-Aging Properties

Seeds and nuts are full of nutrients, including zinc, which is important for memory enhancement. Walnuts offer great levels of omega-3 fatty acids to improve memory and brain function. 

Many seeds and nuts are also full of vitamin E, which protects nervous cell membranes by targeting free radicals. Some seeds and nuts, like sunflower seeds, contain high levels of B vitamins, which are necessary for the production of neurotransmitters and the creation of cell structures. 

6. Dark Chocolate for Antioxidants

Cocoa powder and dark chocolate are full of antioxidants like flavonoids, which gather in the parts of the brain that deal with memory and learning, helping slow mental decline. Chocolate is also a mood booster. 

The flavonoids in chocolate improve blood flow to the brain as well. Chocolate also contains stimulating substances like caffeine and theobromine, which give brain function a short-term boost. 

7. Oranges for Vitamin C

Oranges are rich in vitamin C, a key vitamin for preventing mental decline. Vitamin C helps boost memory, concentration, and decision speed while also helping fight off free radicals that cause damage to brain cells. Because of this, eating fruits and food options that are high in vitamin C can protect against conditions like Alzheimer’s. 

Another way vitamin C helps the brain is by helping the process of forming new neurons, which is essential for memory and overall cognitive resilience. 

Vitamin C helps with the formation of myelin sheaths that protect the neurons while also ensuring blood vessel integrity. This allows for better blood flow to the brain. It’s also necessary to convert serotonin into dopamine, making it essential for mood stabilization. 

8. Eggs for Choline

Egg yolks offer a concentrated amount of choline, which is a micronutrient your body relies on to create acetylcholine. Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter that regulates memory and mood. Higher intakes of choline are linked to better cognitive function and memory. 

Eggs are also rich in folate. Folic acid shows promise in being able to minimize age-related mental decline. You also get vitamin B12 from eggs, which you need to synthesize brain chemicals while also regulating sugar levels in the brain. 

Vitamin B12 is necessary for the formation of red blood cells and the normal functioning of the nervous system. Those with vitamin B12 deficiencies have an increased risk of cognitive impairment. 

Helping Boost Your Brain’s Function

Ensuring you are getting the right nutrition is vital for all parts of your body, including your brain. By incorporating foods that provide antioxidative and anti-inflammatory benefits, free radicals have a harder time causing damage to brain cells. Additionally, including foods that offer B vitamins to your diet helps with the formation of neurons. 

People with dietary problems sometimes may not have access to all the nutrients they need, which is why turning to vitamin infusions and oral supplements makes a difference. You can give your brain what it needs with minimal effort and without triggering allergies or other sensitivities. 

A Review on Stem Cell Research

A Review on Stem Cell Research

Regenerative medicine using stem cell therapy has grown in popularity in the past years because of the promising results it has shown for the management of conditions, injuries, and other issues. 

By understanding the power of stem cells, the options available, and the reasons why some people are hesitant while others urge research forward, you can decide for yourself whether they are the appropriate treatment option for you.

What Are Stem Cells, and How Do They Help?

Stem cells are undifferentiated cells with the potential to become and create specialized cells. They function as a repair system for the body, contributing to the process of tissue regeneration while also supporting normal growth and development. 

Stem cells have two crucial and unique abilities: pluripotency and self-renewal. Pluripotency is the ability to become any kind of cell needed, and self-renewal refers to the way they can replicate themselves indefinitely, providing a never-ending supply of undifferentiated cells. 

Different Types of Stem Cells

There are three broad categories of stem cells: embryonic stem cells, adult stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells. Each option has diverse applications and unique characteristics. 

Embryonic cells come from blastocyst-stage embryos, which are embryos that are from three to five days old. They usually derive from in vitro fertilization clinics. At this stage, the embryo contains an inner cell mass capable of creating all of the tissues that make up the human body. Embryonic cells are fertilized in a lab and donated with full consent. But due to ethical controversy, it is widely used in research only.

Adult stem cells are found in various tissues and organs throughout the adult human body. These stem cells are multipotent, so they can transform into a limited number of stem cells. Adult stem cells help maintain tissue homeostasis and repair and replace damaged cells.

Adult stem cells include:

  • Mesenchymal stem cells
  • Blood stem cells
  • Skin stem cells
  • Neural stem cells
  • Epithelial stem cells

Induced pluripotent stem cells are made by reprogramming certain adult stem cells into a pluripotent state with the use of genetic factors. These cells are similar to embryonic stem cells in the way they function. 

Stem Cell Research: Why There’s Controversy

Using stem cells and performing stem cell research still poses challenges in ethics for some people, especially when turning to embryonic stem cells. 

Concerns over when personhood begins make the use of embryonic stem cells more complex because there’s a worry about the moral status of embryos and whether they can be used or discarded. 

It’s crucial to understand that the embryos that are used have never been in a woman’s body. They are embryos that fertility clinics would otherwise discard. Although the discarding of the embryos is not usually a controversy, the use of those same embryos for research creates controversy for some. 

In this regard, induced pluripotent stem cells are more readily accepted because they don’t rely on embryos. Other issues can arise, however, when it comes to the actual process of researching stem cells. This includes oversight concerns as well as consent issues. 

Arguments for Stem Cell Research

Because of the benefits that stem cell therapy offers, many scientists encourage research to improve treatments and learn more about how human bodies function. 

Scientific Advancements

Stem cell research contributes to the understanding of cellular processes. This allows for the development of better treatment options, as well as a better comprehension of how some conditions form. Stem cells hold promise for the treatment of degenerative conditions like Parkinson’s disease, COPD, and Alzheimer’s

Additionally, stem cell research offers the chance for scientists to understand how stem cells replace or repair damaged cells. This information would make it easier to provide targeted treatments that are more efficient and longer lasting. 

Economic Boost

Using stem cells to create new therapies and medical technologies opens the door to the creation of new jobs and specializations. These advanced treatments can also help decrease medical costs, helping the economy in the long run. 

Ethical Use of Discarded Embryos

Embryos that have been made via in vitro fertilization processes and have gone unused can serve a purpose instead of being discarded. Many argue that this is a better option than treating the embryos like medical waste.

Arguments Against Stem Cell Research

Those against stem cell research generally cite safety and ethical concerns centering on consent and exploitation problems. 

Safety and Efficacy

Because stem cell therapies are still relatively new, there are worries about how effective they can be. The issue with this argument against stem cell research is that it fights against the very thing that would provide a definite answer as to whether stem cells are effective and safe: ongoing research. 

Ethical Concerns

The ethical concerns mainly focus on the use of embryonic stem cells, including the worry about obtaining consent. In many instances, detractors suggest turning to induced pluripotent stem cells for research and avoiding embryonic cell use because of the ethical barriers that would slow the research down. 

In other instances, the worry of consent focuses on the risk of the potential exploitation of vulnerable populations. Those against the research note concern about the possibility of future coercion and other similar activities.

However, as with any other form of research, the scientific community imposes strict guidelines designed to protect against these concerns.

Focusing on the Potential of Regenerative Medicine

Living with chronic conditions that affect quality of life usually means relying on medications, invasive procedures, and therapies that might manage some symptoms but don’t get to the root of the problem. 

On the other hand, stem cell research offers the potential to not only understand the causes of some of the most debilitating conditions and injuries, but also to provide therapy solutions to help manage symptoms. 

The path to learning more about conditions like COPD or Parkinson’s is not easy, but embracing new and promising treatment options can open a way forward. By tackling some of the ethical concerns people have about stem cells head-on, lives may be able to improve for many people around the world.

How to Help a Loved One with Agitation in Alzheimer’s

How to Help a Loved One with Agitation in Alzheimer’s

Caring for a loved one with Alzheimer’s disease can be emotionally challenging, especially when they experience agitation. Agitation is a common symptom of Alzheimer’s and can manifest as restlessness, pacing, aggression, or verbal outbursts. Witnessing your loved one in distress can be distressing for you as well. However, there are strategies and approaches you can employ to help manage and alleviate their agitation.

Here are some tips to assist you in supporting your loved one through this difficult time.

Identify triggers: Observe your loved one’s behavior and try to identify patterns or triggers that may lead to agitation. It could be certain activities, environments, or even specific times of the day. By recognizing these triggers, you can take steps to avoid or modify them, thereby reducing the likelihood of agitation.

Maintain a calm environment: Create a peaceful and soothing atmosphere for your loved one. Minimize noise, bright lights, and other sensory distractions that can contribute to agitation. Consider playing soft music or introducing familiar scents to promote relaxation.

Stick to a routine: Establishing a consistent daily routine can provide a sense of security and predictability for someone with Alzheimer’s. Help your loved one maintain regular sleep patterns, meals, and activities. Sudden changes or disruptions to their routine can increase agitation.

Practice effective communication: When interacting with your loved one, use simple and clear language. Speak slowly and calmly, maintaining eye contact. Avoid arguing or correcting them if they are confused or agitated. Instead, offer reassurance and validation of their feelings.

Engage in calming activities: Engaging your loved one in activities that they enjoy and find calming can help redirect their focus and reduce agitation. This could include listening to soothing music, doing puzzles, or going for a gentle walk together. Adjust the activities based on their abilities and interests.

Ensure physical comfort: Discomfort or pain can exacerbate agitation. Make sure your loved one is comfortable by addressing their physical needs. Check for hunger, thirst, or discomfort due to temperature. Regular exercise and massage can also promote relaxation and reduce restlessness.

Seek professional help: If agitation becomes persistent or unmanageable, it’s important to consult a healthcare professional. They can evaluate your loved one’s condition and suggest appropriate interventions or medications, if necessary. Additionally, support groups or counseling services can provide you with valuable guidance and emotional support throughout the caregiving journey.

Remember, caring for someone with Alzheimer’s requires patience and understanding. While you cannot eliminate agitation entirely, implementing these strategies can help alleviate your loved one’s distress and improve their quality of life. Don’t forget to prioritize self-care as well, as maintaining your own well-being is crucial in providing the best possible care for your loved one.

Regenerative Medicine For Alzheimer’s Disease

Regenerative Medicine For Alzheimer’s Disease

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia, accounting for an estimated 50%-70% of dementia cases worldwide.  Characterized by memory loss and cognitive impairment, AD is progressive, debilitating, and fatal.  In addition, it’s estimated that new cases of AD around the globe are occurring at a staggering rate of 20 per minute with an established effective treatment yet to be discovered.

To date, research has demonstrated an advanced understanding of AD’s development and devastating – and eventually fatal – outcomes, but has only been able to identify drugs that intervene too late in the progression of the condition.

Considering that stem cells have a detailed and documented record of their ability of self-renewal, proliferation, differentiation, and transformation into different types of central nervous system neurons and glial cells and that they have been successful in AD animal models, it is believed that stem cells have the potential to treat patients with AD.  

In reviewing the progress of stem cells as a potential therapeutic treatment for AD, Liu et al. call for new treatments, including the removal of toxic deposits and the ability to replace lost neurons to be developed and as a way to stimulate neural precursors, prevent nerve death, and enhance structural neural plasticity.  The authors also review the pathophysiology of AD and the application prospect of related stem cells based on specific cell types.

Liu et al. point out that, although AD models using animal research have been demonstrated to be successful, animal research is difficult to translate into human trials, and, to date, none have been able to replicate the complex environment observed in the human brain.  Considering this, the authors conclude that it is challenging, at best, to characterize the beneficial effects of stem cells in AD based solely on previously conducted animal models. 

As a result of this review, the authors also conclude that while stem cells used in AD and animal models have achieved certain results, there are still several factors that require consideration.  Among these factors is the fact that this type of stem cell therapy requires neurosurgical procedure and immunosuppression which contributes to ongoing concerns related to controlling the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells, the targeting of molecular markers, and the development of cell delivery systems.  

The authors acknowledge that progression in the study of stem cells in AD applications should be made more efficient because of recent technological advances in stem cells, specifically using hydrogels, nano-technology, and light therapies to produce more efficient delivery of treatment.

While these advances should help, Liu et al. also point out that a number of obstacles, including uncertainty about the amyloid hypothesis, differing objectives related to preventing progression vs symptomatic treatment, and demonstrating the relationship between stem cell treatment and complete AD cure, still need to be addressed.

Considering the findings of this review, the authors conclude that stem cell therapy for AD carries enormous promise, but the successful application will most likely be dependent upon consistent early diagnosis of the condition in order to prevent further brain cell deterioration and will likely be combined with an administration of existing medication as a way to most effectively treat and/or prevent AD.

Source: Mesenchymal stem cell-based therapy for autoimmune diseases.”

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