Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Show Potential in Patients with Osteoporosis

Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Show Potential in Patients with Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is a disease in which bones become weak, brittle, and are prone to fracture. While osteoporosis is commonly considered a disease of low bone density, it is actually more complex and extensive than that. New bone is constantly formed and destroyed (resorbed) throughout life. In osteoporosis, however, the rate at which it is resorbed accelerates, while the rate at which it is formed slows down. In other words, bone is being destroyed faster than it can be formed. This process changes the size and shape of bones and alters its microarchitecture (i.e. the structure of bone on a microscopic level).

Without screening, most people will not know that they have osteoporosis until they have a bone fracture. Bones simply get weaker until some minor trauma causes one or more bones to break. Fortunately, efforts to screen for the disease (e.g. DXA/DEXA or bone density scans) have helped doctors diagnose cases of osteoporosis before the disease progresses to the point of bone fracture.

The main treatment for osteoporosis is a class of drugs called bisphosphonates. Bisphosphonates block the cells that resorb bone (osteoclasts) to allow the cells that form new bone (osteoblasts) to catch up. While bisphosphonates are effective, many patients experience severe GI side effects from these drugs including reflux, esophagitis, and ulcers, and cannot take them.

In an effort to find new ways to treat osteoporosis and help patients who cannot tolerate bisphosphonates, researchers are exploring the possibility of using stem cells to treat the disease. Ideally, one would take stem cells from patients, purify them, get the cells to multiply in the lab, and inject them back into patients with osteoporosis to help regrow bone. What has been unclear was whether a person with osteoporosis still has enough healthy stem cells to effectively regrow bone.

To test this, Dr. Jiang and colleagues collected stem cells from fat tissue of patients with osteoporosis (i.e. adipose-derived stem cells). The researchers took these stem cells and encouraged them to grow and multiply for 14 days. After the stem cells had proliferated, they injected the cells into mice and studied the effects on bone growth. After 4 weeks, the researchers saw evidence on X-ray scans that adipose-derived stem cells caused new bone growth.

These results demonstrate that even patients with osteoporosis still possess stem cells that can be used to treat their own osteoporosis. While the stem cells need to be treated in a laboratory setting for 14 days, it is potentially possible to use a patient’s own stem cells to regrow bone and treat their osteoporosis.

The next phase of research will be to conduct a clinical trial to show test whether autologous stem cell treatment (injecting a patient with their own stem cells) can regrow bone in humans. While those clinical studies will be critical in determining whether this approach is practical and effective for patients, this laboratory research is very promising.

 

 

Reference: Jiang, M. et al. (2014). Bone formation in adipose-derived stem cells isolated from elderly patients with osteoporosis: a preliminary study. Cell Biology International. 2014 Jan;38(1):97-105.

Stem Cells Improve Physical Health and Stamina in Elderly Patients

Stem Cells Improve Physical Health and Stamina in Elderly Patients

Frailty is a syndrome of weight-loss, exhaustion, weakness, slowness, and decreased physical activity. These features combine to make frail individuals more susceptible to physical, psychosocial, and cognitive impairments. Unfortunately, frailty is rather common among elderly individuals. In one study of over 44,000 elderly adults living in the community estimated the overall prevalence of frailty was 10.7%. While the risk of becoming frail increases with old age, frailty is not a normal part of aging. Instead, the syndrome of frailty is driven by biological processes such as inflammation and stem cell dysfunction.

No specific treatment can prevent or reverse frailty. Indeed, the goal of treatment is to maximize the patient’s functional capacity and overall health. The most widely accepted way to manage frailty is a multimodal and multidisciplinary approach. Frail individuals or those at risk for becoming frail are encouraged to participate in strength training and aerobic exercise to build up a cardiovascular reserve and physical fitness. At the same time, substantial efforts are devoted to helping patients consume enough calories to maintain lean muscle and support their immune function. As appetite diminishes, malnutrition can become an issue, so supplemental nutrition may be needed. Physicians can help patients by optimizing medical treatments and reducing the total number of medications prescribed (i.e. avoiding polypharmacy).

Despite these multimodal treatments, most frail patients tend to get worse over time. One hope of treatment is to slow the rate of decline; however, this is not always possible.

Since frailty is driven by stem cell dysfunction, a reasonable way to prevent or treat frailty could be to provide patients with healthy stem cells. Researchers recently conducted a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial in 30 elderly patients with frailty. Frail patients received an IV infusion of either human mesenchymal stem cells or placebo. The researchers then followed the patients for 6 months to assess the safety and efficacy of the stem cell treatment.

Stem cell treatment resulted in a rather remarkable set of benefits for frail patients. Compared to placebo, patients treated with stem cells performed significantly better on tests of physical strength and stamina. Stem cell-treated patients used calories more efficiently, which is a sign that they were more physically fit than those in the placebo group. Moreover, patients who received stem cells had better lung function at the end of the trial than those in the control group. Interestingly, women who received stem cell treatment reported a substantial increase in sexual quality of life compared to those in the placebo group. Lastly, no patients experienced any treatment-related serious adverse events.

When one considers how difficult it is to treat frailty or even alter its progressive decline, these results are remarkable.  Stem cell treatment not only stopped the progression of frailty, but patients actually improved in several important measures including physical strength, physical endurance, lung function, and sexual quality of life. We anxiously await a pivotal clinical trial to confirm these results.

 

 

Reference: Tompkins, BA. (2017). Allogeneic Mesenchymal Stem Cells Ameliorate Aging Frailty: A Phase II Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. The Journals of Gerontology, Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences. 2017 Oct 12;72(11):1513-1522.

Stem Cell Facial Therapy Rejuvenation with Derived Cream

Stem Cell Facial Therapy Rejuvenation with Derived Cream

You don’t need a microscope to recognize aging skin. Aging skin has fine lines and wrinkles; it sags because it has lost elasticity; it is discolored and blotchy. But if you did look at aging skin under a microscope, you would notice that it lacks collagen, elastin, and many other helpful proteins. There would be many old cells and a few young ones. Indeed, old skin looks different under a microscope than new skin, and it is these differences at the cellular level that causes the aging we see on people’s faces. Stem cell facial therapy may be an option for one seeking to improve or prevent the signs of aging.

Fortunately, these cellular changes may not be a curse. Stem cell therapy may be able to replace the proteins that are lost during aging and replace old cells with newer, healthier cells. In short, stem cell facial therapy may be able to can rejuvenate skin and reverse the signs of aging.

The team of Korean stem cell researchers recently completed a study in which they collected mesenchymal stem cells from various sources and used them to rejuvenate human skin. The researchers collected stem cells from fat tissue (adipose), bone marrow, and umbilical cord samples. Umbilical cord tissue is tissue that is normally discarded after childbirth as medical waste. In the laboratory, the scientists then cleaned and purified each of these types of mesenchymal stem cells.

In laboratory studies, the researchers found that mesenchymal stem cells produced substantial amounts of skin rejuvenating factors including collagen type I, collagen type IV, fibronectin, and elastin. Interestingly, they found that umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells produced a 100-fold greater amount of GDF-11 than adipose or bone marrow stem cells. This is important because GDF-11 is a cytokine that stimulates the production of collagen and elastin. GDF-11 also attracts human dermal fibroblasts (i.e. healthy skin cells) that then, in turn, produce their own collagen and elastin. These substances make skin healthy, elastic, vibrant, plump, and full.

Given the remarkable amounts of GDF-11 that umbilical cord-derived stem cells produced, the researchers decided to conduct a clinical trial to test the effect of these cells on aging skin. The scientists created a cream that contained the substances produced by the stem cells, including exosomes and beneficial proteins. The women who volunteered for the study applied the cream to their faces once per day. Within 2 to 4 weeks, the women had increased skin density (i.e. thickness/fullness) and substantially reduced wrinkles, especially around the eyes. Moreover, treatment with the stem cell-derived cream did not cause irritation, stinging, or any other adverse reaction.

This clinical study will need to be repeated in larger numbers of volunteers; however, the results are quite remarkable. Researchers were able to collect stem cells from umbilical cord tissue and prepare a cosmetic that reversed some of the signs of facial aging. Conveniently, this treatment did not require injections but could be applied topically. If future research confirms this work, treatment with a cosmetic/cosmeceutical made from umbilical cord stem cells could be a painless way to achieve facial skin rejuvenation.

 

 

Reference: Kim, YJ. (2018). Conditioned media from human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells stimulate rejuvenation function in human skin. Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports. 2018 Oct 25;16:96-102.

Using Stem Cells to Regrow Hair with Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

Using Stem Cells to Regrow Hair with Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

Alopecia, better known as hair loss, is a cosmetic problem. People do not need hair on their scalp to survive. Nonetheless, people with thinning hair or hair loss often endure considerable distress and suffering. Hair loss can cause low self-esteem, symptoms of depression, and a diminished quality of life. So while hair loss may be a simple cosmetic, strictly speaking, many people with alopecia struggle with an ongoing and serious problem.

Unfortunately, there are few effective treatments for hair loss. The two main medical treatments for hair loss are minoxidil and finasteride. Finasteride is generally only useful for male pattern baldness. Both men and women can use minoxidil, but it, too, is only partially effective. Various surgeries can be used to treat hair loss such as hair transplantation, scalp reduction, and scalp expansion, but patient satisfaction rates for these procedures are fairly low.

Stem cells that have been derived from fat tissue (i.e. adipose) secrete a number of beneficial chemicals called cytokines. These cytokines are important for wound healing and new blood vessel growth (i.e. angiogenesis). Cytokines released by adipose-derived stem cells are also able to stimulate hair follicles and induce the growth of hair. Based on these successes in the laboratory, dermatologists in Japan have used the substances secreted by adipose-derived stem cells to help people with hair loss.

Drs. Fukuoka, Narita, and Suga published a report detailing their successes in treating hair loss with proteins extracted from adipose-derived stem cells. A single hair loss treatment involves making a number of very small injections into the scalp. Each patient usually needs 6 to 8 treatment sessions, given once per month.

The doctors have performed this stem cell-based hair loss treatment on more than 1,000 patients and they have not encountered a single allergic reaction or infection. Indeed, no serious complications have occurred in their patients.

Not only is this stem cell-based hair loss treatment safe, but it is also apparently effective, as well. Patients have new growth of thin hair after two or three treatments, but this is minor and can usually only be detected by the doctors. After the fourth or fifth treatment, however, patients often notice new hair growth. By the sixth treatment, most patients can easily see new hair growth.

To confirm the effectiveness of their treatment, the doctors performed a half-side comparison test. In this test, they injected the stem cell-based hair loss treatment on one side of the scalp and injected saline on the other. The side of the scalp that received the stem cell extract had significantly more hair growth than the saline-treated side. This is strong evidence that the treatment is effective.

 

 

 

Reference: Fukuoka H. et al. (2017). Hair Regeneration Therapy: Application of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells. 2017;12(7):531-534.

Hyperbaric Oxygen for Parkinson’s Disease with Severe Depression and Anxiety

Hyperbaric Oxygen for Parkinson’s Disease with Severe Depression and Anxiety

Parkinson’s disease is widely known as a neurological condition that causes motor symptoms. Typically, patients with Parkinson’s disease have pill-rolling tremor, cogwheel rigidity, and a shuffling gait. However, about half of all patients with Parkinson’s disease also have psychiatric symptoms such as anxiety and depression. It can be challenging for patients and caregivers to deal with Parkinson’s disease, but if anxiety and depression are also present, it can make matters worse. When psychiatric symptoms occur, they can make Parkinson’s disease more difficult to treat, increase the burden on caregivers, and greatly reduce quality-of-life for patients.

One of the things that make psychiatric symptoms so difficult to treat in patients with Parkinson’s disease is that doctors have limited treatment options. The antidepressants that they would normally use to treat depression and anxiety can make motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease worse. People with Parkinson’s disease often struggle with sleep disturbances, and typical antidepressants can make sleep problems worse, too. Not surprisingly, many patients with Parkinson’s disease suffer from depression and anxiety and never find adequate treatment.

Physicians recently reported their experience with a patient with Parkinson’s disease who they treated with hyperbaric oxygen. The man had struggled with Parkinson’s disease for 1.5 years and had slipped into a severe depression. He had lost interest in pleasurable activities, was only sleeping about 2 to 3 hours each night, unintentionally lost over 40 pounds, and was having thoughts of suicide. He also had significant anxiety issues that made his life very difficult. Regular drug and psychotherapy treatments for anxiety and depression did not work for this man, so physicians were left with few options.

The man with Parkinson’s disease, severe depression, and anxiety underwent 30 days of hyperbaric oxygen treatments. He inhaled pure oxygen in a hyperbaric chamber for 40 minutes per session at 2 atm of pressure. In as little as four days of hyperbaric oxygen treatment, the man was sleeping better and longer than he did before treatment. His mood has also improved.

After 30 days of hyperbaric oxygen treatments, the man was able to sleep for 8 to 10 hours a night. Not only did his psychiatric symptoms improve, but his Parkinson’s disease symptoms also improved. While he still had Parkinson’s disease symptoms after hyperbaric oxygen treatment, the symptoms had improved substantially.

When physicians followed up one month after treatment had ended, the patient was still sleeping through the night, his mood was good, and he did not need assistance with his activities of daily living.

It is important to remember that this is a case study, the results of a single patient. Nevertheless, the improvements in both Parkinson’s disease and severe symptoms of anxiety and depression are incredibly impressive. For this man, at least, hyperbaric oxygen therapy had a substantial positive effect in his life where other treatments had failed.

Patients can also combine Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy with Regenerative Medicine. Regenerative Medicine is an alternative option to help manage the symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease. The stem cells have the potential to replicate and repair numerous cells of the body, including those damaged by Parkinson’s. These advancements in the treatment of Parkinson’s Disease work to fully regenerate missing or damaged tissue that the body would not ordinarily regrow.

Call your dedicated Care Coordinator at 800-531-0831 for more information.

 

Reference: Xu, Jin-Jin et al. (2018). Hyperbaric oxygen treatment for Parkinson’s disease with severe depression and anxiety. Medicine. 2018 Mar; 97(9): e0029.

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