People with heart failure may have trouble breathing, walking, and having a normal life. Current treatments for heart failure are aimed at making the healthy heart tissue pump harder (e.g. digoxin). On the other hand, treatments largely ignore dead heart tissue because there A myocardial infarction, better known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow through the coronary arteries to the heart is blocked. This usually occurs when a blood clot forms in a coronary artery. Since the heart is a highly active muscle, it requires a constant supply of oxygen and nutrients to maintain its pumping function. When the heart muscle is starved of oxygen, as is the case during myocardial infarction, heart cells become dysfunctional. If blood flow through the coronary arteries (which carries oxygen to the heart) is not restored soon after a heart attack begins, those dysfunctional heart cells will die.
When heart tissue has been destroyed by a heart attack, patients are usually left with poor heart function. This can lead to congestive heart failure. One way to determine whether someone who has had a heart attack has suffered lasting heart damage is to perform an echocardiogram, or simply an “echo.” By performing an echo, doctors can estimate the heart’s ability to pump blood by measuring left ventricular function.
has been no known way to rescue it. With the discovery and use of stem cells, however, there is a chance that scientists may be able to rescue dead heart muscle and improve cardiac function.
In a study, researchers blocked the coronary arteries of experimental animals to cause myocardial infarction. Four weeks later, they injected either bone marrow-derived stem cells or adipose-tissue-derived stem cells into the heart. Impressively, blood flow significantly improved to the heart and heart function. Treated animals had substantially higher left ventricular ejection fraction, essentially reversing heart failure a full month after a heart attack. Shockingly, the researchers found that stem cells appeared to salvage dead heart tissue, meaning that the size of the damaged area was smaller after treatment.
While these incredible results will need to be replicated in humans, this research represents an exciting breakthrough in cardiology and regenerative medicine. The stem cell approach may be able to help patients who have had a heart attack, but could not get medical treatment in time to remove the clot.
To drive awareness surrounding cardiovascular diseases, the medical community recognizes September as National Cholesterol Education Month. Americans of all ages can have high cholesterol, which increases the risk for serious cardiovascular conditions. To ensure your cardiovascular health is in check, take a moment to discover why cholesterol matters with the information below.
Why Does Cholesterol Matter?
Cholesterol is a fat-like substance, 80% of which the body produces on its own. The remaining cholesterol is taken in through foods; specifically, animal products such as poultry, meat, and cheese are highest in cholesterol. Foods high in saturated or trans fats can also spike cholesterol levels.
While cholesterol is actually needed to help the body build new cells and create hormones, in excess, it begins to pose serious health risks. Cholesterol builds up along artery walls, causing them to harden. This impacts cardiovascular functionality by impeding optimal blood flow, putting individuals at risk for clogged blood vessels which can lead to heart attack, heart failure, and stroke.
What Can You Do to Control Your Cholesterol Levels?
The first step is to identify your cholesterol levels. Oftentimes, high cholesterol won’t present any symptoms early on. It’s therefore recommended for adults to have their cholesterol levels checked regularly via blood tests. Total cholesterol levels above 200mg/dL are considered unhealthy, but alarmingly, more than 102 million Americans over the age of 20 have levels at or above this measurement.
Once you get a cholesterol reading, your physician can make tailored recommendations to help you lower your levels if needed. Eating a diet consisting primarily of plant-based foods, including fruits and vegetables as well as lean protein, is one great way to address cholesterol issues. Avoid or significantly limit your intake of sugary foods, fatty or process meats, and foods high in sodium.
Physical activity also promotes cardiovascular health by increasing circulation, controlling blood pressure, and helping you maintain a healthy weight. The American Heart Association recommends getting thirty minutes of exercise five days per week for healthy individuals. To specifically lower cholesterol, an average of 40 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise three to four times per week is recommended.
Heart disease is one of the most prevalent heart condition that affects both genders, but there are certain heart conditions that affect only women and have different symptoms. For women, what are the signs to look for and what can they do to manage and be preventative.
Many believe that during a heart attack one experiences severe chest pain, however, this may not be the case for all. Women usually have less obvious signs like shortness of breath, pain in the back, upper belly and jaw. Some may also feel light-headed, dizzy or nauseous.
Broken Heart Syndrome
The official term for this condition is stress-induced cardiomyopathy, and it’s more likely to happen to women as compared to men. It’s caused by an abrupt release of stress hormones, and it happens after very emotional events like divorce or a death in your family. A part of your heart gets bigger and can’t pump blood properly. This can cause intense chest pain, but with quick treatment, this can lead to a full recovery.
This condition is called the spontaneous coronary artery dissection which occurs when one of the blood vessels of the heart tears. This can lead to a block or slowing down of the blood flow causing intense pain the chest along with many other symptoms. SCAD is a serious heart condition that requires immediate treatment. This happens more in women who have recently given birth.
Menopause doesn’t cause heart disease, but the body changes a woman experiences may make her more likely to develop the condition. As the levels of estrogen in the body decrease, arteries become stiffer. After menopause, the belly fat, blood pressure and bad cholesterol levels increase so it is suggested to stay active to keep the heart healthy.
If you have a condition like lupus or arthritis that cause inflammation, then you have more risk to develop a heart disease. By managing inflammation and avoiding steroids, this can help prevent developing heart disease. It is suggested to consult with your doctor for the best way to protect your heart.
Your chances of developing heart disease is greater if you have diabetes. The sugar in the blood slows down the flow of oxygen and this can lead to a buildup of plaque in the arteries. Women who have diabetes are generally over weight with high cholesterol and blood pressure. Try to keep your sugar levels and weight under control with proper diet and exercise.
Suffering from depression can also increase your chances of having heart disease. It can cause you to stay inactive and neglect your health. The continuous stress and anxiety can have a bad impact on the heart. Talk to your doctor if you think you need help managing depression.
Being Thin Does Not Guarantee a Healthy Heart
Yes, women who are overweight are more likely to have a heart condition but being thin doesn’t eliminate you from the risks for high blood pressure and cholesterol.
Steps for Prevention:
Check Your Family Tree
If women in your immediate family, like your sister or mother, have had a heart condition before the age of 65 or if they’ve had a stroke, you may have a greater chance to have heart disease. It Is best to let your doctor know your family history so they can help you lower your chances.
Smoking can also increase the odds of the condition as well as your chances of a stroke by 25%. Smoking damages the blood vessels and increases blood pressure, which can lead to blood clots.
Watch Your Cholesterol
Cholesterol can build up in the arteries causing plaque to build up and harden and clog the arteries. By taking a routine blood test, you can be aware of your cholesterol levels. If your bad cholesterol levels are high, try making small changes like reducing sugar and fat intake while increasing more frequent exercise.
Manage a Healthy Weight
Eat fresh foods that are low in calories, fats and sodium. Take heart healthy cooking classes or watch online videos. Find activities that are fun and active, like going for a walk with a friend or taking a Zumba class.
Fitness Matters More After 40
Making small changes to your daily routine can significantly help. Even if you have never worked out, take the necessary steps to maintain your fitness after you hit your 40s. You can cut your chances of heart conditions by engaging in regular exercise.
Pregnancy Heart Protection
During pregnancy, the heart pumps more blood than usual. This can lead to excessive stress on the arteries and heart. Women who already experience valve issues should look out for signs like a fast heart rate, shortness of breath and infections during pregnancy. If you have high blood pressure be careful as it can lead to a condition called preeclampsia that can be of threat to both the mother and the baby.
You may be familiar with the word systolic as the top number in blood pressure measurement. But systolic also refers to the portion of the heartbeat in which the heart produces the most squeezing force. People with systolic heart failure are not able to squeeze enough blood out of the heart, resulting in a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. Systolic heart failure may cause symptoms such as fatigue, swollen ankles, wheezing, and shortness of breath, among others. Treatments to improve the heart’s ability to squeeze can help reduce the symptoms but unfortunately, those treatments are not always effective due to the damage of the heart. Since stem cells offer the promise of repairing damaged heart muscle, researchers have been examining ways in which stem cells can help treat symptomatic systolic heart failure.
Stem cell research focused on the treatment of systolic heart failure has been particularly robust. A recent systematic review article analyzed results of 29 published clinical studies showing the benefits of autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in patients with symptomatic systolic heart failure. The study authors found that people treated with bone marrow-derived stem cells had significantly better left ventricular ejection fractions. In other words, the hearts of stem cell-treated patients were able to squeeze more blood during systole. Interestingly, stem cells appear to help a patient to regain function from damaged heart tissue—something that is not possible with other heart failure treatments. This research shows that with stem cell treatment, the heart can result in better blood flow, decrease the areas of damaged heart tissue, and promote healthier heart muscle.
Perhaps more relevant for patients with this condition are the improvements in ejection fraction and heart function with tangible health benefits. Patients who received stem cell therapy had improved capacity to perform exercise after treatment and reported a higher quality of life. Stem cells also improved the patients’ New York Heart Association functional classification, which is a method of determining the severity of heart failure. Stem cell treatment has the potential to help patients with symptomatic systolic heart failure have less severe heart failure symptoms, better physical functioning, and improved quality of life.
Larger clinical trials are currently underway to determine the best type of stem cell for treating this condition, and the most effective way to administer those stem cells to patients. However, given the speed and enthusiasm of this research, patients may have the option to consider stem cell treatments for symptomatic systolic heart failure as a therapeutic option.
A recent study, published in Circulation Research, has shown how umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells may help patients who suffer from heart failure. The researchers observed patients with heart failure that was chronic and stable and that presented with reduced ejection fraction. Ejection fraction refers to the percentage of blood that leaves the heart each time the heart contracts and is normally 55% or higher. A reduced ejection fraction can indicate weakness, damage, or other problems.
In their investigation, the scientists aimed to evaluate whether infusing umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells in this group of heart failure patients is safe – and whether the cells could improve any of the clinical features of heart failure in these patients. To do this, they infused 15 patients with umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells and used a placebo in 15 other patients. They then tested patients for adverse side effects on the day they underwent infusions, as well as 15 and 90 days after the procedure.
None of the patients who underwent mesenchymal stem cell infusions exhibited adverse side effects over the period of time in which they were observed. Additionally, none of the patients tested positive for antibodies against the stem cells, meaning that the patients’ immune systems were not negatively reacting to the infusions. Based on these results, the researchers concluded that the mesenchymal stem cell transplants were safe for this group of heart failure patients.
The researchers also tested the patients’ cardiac function and quality of life 3, 6, and 12 months after the mesenchymal stem cell infusions. To do so, the scientists used imaging to look at the heart, employed ejection fraction level tests, and implemented what are known as the New York Heart Association functional class and Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire.
The scientists’ tests showed that ejection fraction increased in the patients who had undergone mesenchymal stem cell infusions, with the most significant increase apparent at 6-month post-infusion. The patients who had received the placebo treatment, on the other hand, did not show any change in ejection fraction. Functional status and quality of life were also better because of mesenchymal stem cell infusion than placebo. Future studies will help us better understand how we can use these cells to help those with heart failure.
Learn about the regenerative potential of Mesenchymal stem cells here.
Heart failure is currently treated using pharmacologic interventions that help to control the symptoms of heart failure and slow the process of deterioration. However, these drugs do not stop problematic processes occurring at the cellular level, and so patients using these drugs continue to decline toward end-stage heart failure. Because the progression of heart failure involves things like cardiac remodeling and fibrosis at the cellular level, researchers have reasoned that cell-based therapies may be a promising way to treat heart failure patients. A recent review published in Stem Cells International outlines the rationale for using mesenchymal stem cells to treat heart failure and presents data from relevant clinical trials.
Mesenchymal stem cells are an attractive type of stem cell for both research clinical applications because of their ease of accessibility. These cells can be retrieved from a number of tissues, including fat tissue, heart tissue, umbilical cord tissue, and bone marrow tissue. A number of properties of mesenchymal stem cells also make them a promising therapeutic option for heart failure and other diseases. For instance, they have been shown to reduce inflammation and the initiation of inflammation and to promote the growth of blood vessels. Indeed, it has been suggested that the central process of heart failure is inflammation.
In cardiology, many of the clinical trials that have been performed with mesenchymal stem cells have focused on ischemic heart failure, though there are data demonstrating the promise of these stem cells in both ischemic and non-ischemic heart failure. While there are not as many data on the impact of mesenchymal stem cells on non-ischemic heart failure patients, the authors of the review argue that these cells could be even more advantageous in this group of patients (versus those with ischemic heart failure) because the damaged part of the heart still has adequate blood supply in the case of non-ischemic heart failure.
Overall, studies have tended to show that mesenchymal stem cells are a safe option, with little risk for significant adverse side effects. Clinical trials have helped to elucidate the specific ways that mesenchymal stem cells can be used to help with heart failure. Cellular scaffolds, for example, can be used to ensure that the stem cells are able to reach the target area of the heart in enough abundance to have an impact. Future studies will help to clarify the contexts in which these cells can be useful – and how their use can be optimized to help patients.
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