Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from a wide variety of tissues and organs have demonstrated immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and regenerative properties that contribute to a host of regenerative and immunomodulatory activities, including tissue homeostasis and tissue repair. The most frequently studied and reported sources of MSCs are those collected from bone marrow and adipose tissue.
In this review, Krawczenkjo and Klimczak focus on MSCs derived from adipose tissue (AT-MSCs) and their secretome in regeneration processes.
Adipose tissue is the most commonly used source of MSCs, primarily because it is easily accessible and is often a byproduct of cosmetic and medical procedures. Like most MSCs, AT-MSCs are able to differentiate into adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteoblasts; they are also able to differentiate into neural cells, skeletal myocytes, cardiomyocytes, smooth muscle cells, hepatocytes, endocrine cells, and endothelial cells.
In addition, AT-MSCs secrete a broad spectrum of biologically active factors that serve as essential components involved in the therapeutic effects of MSCs, including the ability to stimulate cell proliferation, new blood vessel formation, and immunomodulatory properties; these factors include cytokines, lipid mediators, hormones, exosomes, microvesicles, and miRNA.
Preclinical and clinical studies on AT-MSCs in tissue regeneration were demonstrated to contribute to wound healing, muscle damage, nerve regeneration, bone regeneration, and lung tissue regeneration.
Evaluating these studies, Krawczenko and Aleksandra Klimczak conclude that AT-MSCs and their secretome are promising and powerful therapeutic tools in regenerative medicine, primarily due to their unique properties in supporting angiogenesis.
The results obtained by the preclinical and clinical studies evaluated for this review suggest that the ability of AT-MSCs and their derivatives, including EVs and CM, to deliver a wide range of bioactive molecules could be considered as factors supporting enhanced tissue repair and regeneration.
Source: “Exosomes in Mesenchymal Stem Cells, a New Therapeutic Strategy ….” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4308409/.