Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for treatment towards immune- and inflammation-mediated diseases: review of current clinical trials.

Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for treatment towards immune- and inflammation-mediated diseases: review of current clinical trials.

Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hMSCs) are the non-hematopoietic, multipotent stem cells with the capacity to differentiate into mesodermal lineages such as osteocytes, adipocytes, and chondrocytes as well ectodermal (neurocytes) and endodermal lineages (hepatocytes).  

Until recently, when the immunomodulation properties of MSCs were proven to be clinically relevant, the use of these stem cells was met with skepticism and doubt by a large portion of the scientific community.  

However, since that time, MSCs have demonstrated tremendous potential for allogeneic use in a number of applications, including cell replacement, and tissue regeneration, and for use in the therapeutic treatment of immune- and inflammation-mediated diseases. In fact, in many cases, the use of MSCs has been so successful that they appear to demonstrate more efficacy than what has been observed previously in traditional regenerative medicine.

Among the many benefits making MSCs so interesting for this application is their capacity for both multilineage differentiation and immunomodulation. Obtaining a better understanding of these capacities has opened new doors in regenerative medicine and demonstrated that these somatic progenitor cells are highly versatile for a wide range of therapeutic applications. 

Additionally, the authors of this review point to research indicating the capacity of MSCs to home to the site of injury and/or inflammation, making them more attractive for use in clinical application. In this review, Wang et al. focus on this non-traditional clinical use of tissue-specific stem cells and highlight important findings and trends in this exciting area of stem cell therapy.

At the time this review was published, there were over 500 MSCs-related studies registered with the NIH Clinical Trial Database. Interestingly, nearly half of these trials involve attempts to better understand the use of MSCs in treating immune- and inflammation-mediated diseases – an indication of the recent shift in focus when determining effective therapeutic applications of MSCs.

In reviewing these clinical trials, Wang et al. found that the most common immune-/inflammation-mediated indications in MSC clinical trials were for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), osteoarthritis (OA), obstructive airway disease, multiple sclerosis (MS), and solid organ transplant rejection.

Clinical trials involving MSCs, and specifically HSCs, in GVHD have indicated that while there may be indications of immunosuppressant therapy, immune rejection in the form of GVHD is still a major cause of morbidity and mortality, occurring in 30 ~ 40 % of allogeneic HSC transplantations.

Despite a number of clinical trials indicating significant efficacy in the use of MSCs for GVHD treatment, the authors point out that these findings were not observed consistently throughout all trials. Significant differences in these studies appeared to be related to differences in adult and pediatric applications, a specific type of HSC that was transplanted, and the type of MSCs that were utilized. There also appears to be a disparity in the results obtained from similar studies conducted in Europe and North America. Considering this, there are a number of studies involving MSCs and GVHD still ongoing. 

These findings led the authors to conclude that despite the strong potential of MSCs as therapeutic agents for GVHD, detailed tailoring of the patient population and stringent MSC processing criteria are necessary to deliver consistent and reproducible results.

Despite the mixed findings for use of MSCs in the treatment of GVHD, trials reviewed for other immune/inflammation-mediated diseases, including MS, inflammatory bowel disease, OA, RA, and inflammatory airway and pulmonary diseases demonstrated positive results pertaining to the safety of MSC therapy when used in this application. 

Specifically, Wang et al. point out that although there have been positive results observed in preclinical animal studies, these results have not translated to clinical efficacy. In considering this, the authors suggest a focus on better clarifying pathophysiological details and subsets within disease entities to better tailor MSC therapy and standardization of in vitro culture protocols with stringent criteria for testing of functional parameters as two important steps to improve our understanding on the mechanistic properties of MSC immunomodulation.

Despite these recommendations, the authors conclude that the current results and developments of these clinical trials demonstrate that the tremendous potential of MSC therapy in a wide range of areas, including the treatment of immune/inflammation-mediated diseases, can be expected in the near future to achieve clinical relevance.
Source: “Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for treatment towards ….” 4 Nov. 2016,

Bone Marrow-Derived MSCs to Reduce Neural Damage and Prevent Multiple System Atrophy

Bone Marrow-Derived MSCs to Reduce Neural Damage and Prevent Multiple System Atrophy

Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare, degenerative adult-onset neurological disorder that affects your body’s involuntary functions, including blood pressure, breathing, bladder function, and motor control. MSA also demonstrates several symptoms similar to those accompanying Parkinson’s disease, including slow movement, stiff muscles, and loss of balance[1].

Considering the rapid and fatal progression of MSA, there are not currently any long-term drug treatments known to produce therapeutic benefits against the condition. The typical neuropathological hallmarks of MSA are bone marrow destruction and cell loss in the striatonigral region of the brain that results in dopamine deficiency significant enough to result in behavioral abnormalities. 

Since mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have demonstrated the ability to self-renew and differentiate within a wide variety of tissues, Park et al., in this study, aimed to assess whether the transplantation of human-derived MSCs could have beneficial effects in a double-toxin-induced MSA rat model. Additionally, the authors assessed the signaling-based mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of MSCs.

Specifically, as part of this study, Park et al. studied the effects of MSCs in 60 rats randomly allocated to one of six groups – a control group, a double-toxin group, two groups receiving MSC intra-arterial (IA) injections, and two groups receiving MSC transplantation via intrathecal (IT) injection after double-toxin induction.

After receiving treatment each group of rats underwent a variety of tests, including the Rotarod test, gait test, and grip strength test. Additionally, the brain tissue of the rats was collected, preserved, and evaluated to assess notable differences.

At the conclusion of this study, the authors found clear evidence of the protective effects of MSCs on double-toxin-induced MSA. The study also demonstrated that transplantation of MSCs prevented neuronal cell death and improved behavioral disorders caused by double-toxin-induced MSA, specifically by reducing dopaminergic neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation.

Additionally, Park et al.’s study demonstrated a higher expression of polyamine modulating factor-binding protein 1 and a lower expression of 3-hydroxymethyl-3-methylglutaryl-COA lyase (HMGCL) after MSC transplantation. 

Park et al. also point out that further investigation is required to better understand the exact mechanism of neuron-specific knockdown in vivo animal and clinical trials.

The authors of this study conclude that treating MSA with bone-marrow-derived MSCs protects against neuronal loss by reducing polyamine- and cholesterol-induced neural damage and may represent a promising new therapeutic treatment option for MSA.

Source: “Prevention of multiple system atrophy using human bone marrow ….” 11 Jan. 2020,

[1] “Multiple system atrophy (MSA) – Symptoms and causes – Mayo Clinic.” 21 May. 2020, Accessed 4 Apr. 2022.

Stem Cells For Autoimmune Diseases: MSCs

Stem Cells For Autoimmune Diseases: MSCs

For decades, autoimmune diseases such as Lupus, Rheumatoid Arthritis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have posed a major challenge to researchers and healthcare providers. While medical interventions have evolved tremendously in the last few decades, these serious conditions remain notoriously difficult to treat. Here we talk about Stem Cell for Autoimmune Diseases, Specifically Mesenchymal stem cells!

Fortunately, mesenchymal stem cells may be a potentially effective treatment option for many patients suffering from various autoimmune conditions. While the efficacy of this intervention varies depending on unique patient factors, individuals who have had little to no success with traditional interventions may find it useful to consider MSC therapy.

What Are MSCs?

Mesenchymal stem cells are a special type of cell that can transform into other types of cells. MSCs can become specialized cells such as those that form muscular tissue, cartilage, and many others. MSCs can be harvested from many different locations, including bone marrow, adipose (fat) tissue, and the Wharton’s Jelly within umbilical cords.

Once harvested, MSCs can be administered to help manage various conditions and their symptoms. MSCs are typically administered through a systemic application into the blood system. However, they can also be directly administered to have a more targeted impact on a specific area depending on the patient’s case.

Can MSCs Be Used to Treat Autoimmune Diseases?

While MSCs are still being studied, research has indicated that MSCs can be an effective intervention for many different autoimmune conditions, including COPD

Specifically, mesenchymal stem cells have been effective at treating chronic inflammation, which is a common symptom in many autoimmune patients.

However, every case and patient is unique. Therefore, treatment decisions should be made with the guidance of a licensed medical professional. An experienced care provider can thoroughly review your medical history and condition to help you select the best treatment plan for your needs.

Potential Benefits of Stem Cell for Autoimmune Diseases MSCs

Mesenchymal stem cells have the unique potential to reduce inflammation in individuals suffering from an autoimmune disease, such as Lupus or Rheumatoid Arthritis. There is a correlation between a reduction in inflammation and improvements in other disease symptoms. However, the strength of this correlation is still being researched.

With that being said, MSCs may reduce the severity of many common autoimmune symptoms, including pain and fatigue.

Although research is still in progress, mesenchymal stem cell therapy has shown promise for patients looking for an alternative option. With new advancements in medical tools and therapeutic methodologies, patients who suffer from autoimmune disorders may soon have more options for relief than ever before. If you are interested in learning more about Stem Cell for Autoimmune Diseases, contact us today and speak with a care coordinator!

How Stem Cell Rejuvenation Leads to Healthier Aging

Stem Cell Rejuvenation

No one wants to grow old. That is apparent from the huge amounts of money people spend on anti-aging products and services each year. These products and services include everything from lotions to more invasive options like plastic surgery.

However, healthier aging is possible without relying on invasive procedures. Stem cell rejuvenation, for example, offers promising results for people searching for ways of going through a healthier aging process. 

Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Aging: What to Know

Intrinsic aging refers to the various traits you inherited, including collagen and elastin production levels, hormonal balance, and more. The thinning lips or particular types of wrinkles you see on your parents, for example, are intrinsic aging traits, and you will likely deal with them as you age, too. 

Intrinsic aging doesn’t just refer to visible signs of aging. It also includes the damage that occurs to organs and other body tissues as you get older. How fast an organ deteriorates and how fast tissues regenerate to keep up with the damage all depends on intrinsic aging. 

Extrinsic aging refers to the things that you can control about aging. It includes lifestyle choices like smoking, not eating correctly, and so much more. 

Both intrinsic and extrinsic factors in aging begin to accumulate, sending messages of aging to the core of stem cells. Thus, everything associated with aging can be seen through the lens of stem cells. 

Understanding Stem Cell Rejuvenation

Introducing youthful stem cells into the body can make it easier to rejuvenate existing cells, helping the body age in a healthier way and even offering the chance to reverse some of the effects of aging. 

As you age, your cells are not as efficient at replicating as they were when you were younger. This leads to cells getting damaged and dying off. Inefficiency in cell replication leads to aging bodies. 

Stem cells are the cells that create specialized cells. They are your body’s building blocks. To combat the natural aging process, stem cells can help regenerate damaged tissue. This is because they can be made into various cell types. 

Stem cells can also stimulate the production of growth factors and other molecules that trigger healing mechanisms, helping maintain healthy tissues. Chronic, low-grade inflammation is associated with aging, and stem cells help to reduce inflammation.

They do this by impacting the processes of white blood cells. Macrophages are white blood cells that are integral to the immune system. M1 macrophages can create inflammation, while M2 macrophages reduce it. 

Stem cells help transform M1 macrophages into M2 macrophages. This stimulates the process of reducing inflammation. 

Another way stem cells help battle against the aging process is by modulating the immune system. They have the potential to maintain a healthy immune system and delay the type of immune dysfunction that comes with age. 

Oxidative stress also plays a role in aging. Free radicals damage cells, leading to many of the issues the aging process causes. Stem cells help combat the effects of oxidative stress.

Stem cells also have the potential to affect visible signs of aging. They can increase collagen production, which is vital for maintaining skin flexibility and firmness. As part of the aging process, your collagen production decreases, leading to the formation of fine lines and wrinkles. 

The Process of Stem Cell Rejuvenation

Stem cell rejuvenation begins with choosing the right type of stem cells. The main stem cell type used is mesenchymal stem cells.

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a type of multipotent stem cell that can differentiate into a variety of cell types. They are typically found in the stromal or connective tissue of various organs and tissues in the body. 

MSCs were first identified in the bone marrow, but they can also be isolated from other tissues such as adipose (fat) tissue, and umbilical cord tissue. 

MSCs possess immunomodulatory properties, meaning they can regulate the immune system. They can influence the activity of immune cells, such as T cells and macrophages, and have anti-inflammatory effects. This makes them potentially useful for treating conditions with immune system dysregulation.

MSCs exhibit low immunogenicity, meaning they are less likely to provoke an immune response when transplanted into a recipient. This characteristic makes them potentially suitable for allogeneic (from a donor) transplantation.

MSCs have been studied for their potential therapeutic applications in regenerative medicine, tissue engineering, and treatment of various diseases, such as autoimmune disorders, cardiovascular diseases, and musculoskeletal conditions.

If from a patient’s own tissues, the healthcare provider extracts the stem cells and prepares them for injection. They then inject the stem cells into the treatment area to provide relief from inflammation while encouraging your body to start regenerating tissues at the same time. 

Because stem cells have the ability to endlessly duplicate themselves, the benefits of stem cell therapy for rejuvenation purposes can only improve over time. 

Benefits of Stem Cell Rejuvenation

Stem cell rejuvenation procedures are minimally invasive. They require an extraction of stem cells and then an injection or the introduction of an IV. Other procedures that target aging can be significantly more invasive, leading to long recovery times. 

The results continue to improve over time. This is because stem cells will go on to multiply where they were injected, potentially leading to more powerful results. 

Stem cell rejuvenation can target the aging process at the cellular level, helping reduce inflammation and prevent oxidative stress. Stem cells may lead to an increase in collagen production as well, which helps combat fine lines and wrinkles. 

Choosing Regenerative Medicine

Anti-aging solutions don’t have to involve invasive procedures or the reliance on options that take a very long time to work. Regenerative medicine treatments like stem cell therapy offer the chance to tackle the causes of aging at the cellular level. 

Stem cells can offer anti-inflammatory results while also targeting free radicals and helping repair damaged tissues as well as damaged stem cells. By turning to regenerative medicine options, you have the chance to find rejuvenation solutions that can work. 

Advancements in COPD Treatment Options


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a condition that affects about 12.5 million people in the United States. COPD can become progressively worse over time and affect your breathing. 

Although lifestyle changes, oxygen therapy, and medications have traditionally served as the standard treatment choices, there is now another promising option for treating COPD, regenerative medicine, also known as stem cell therapy.

Understanding COPD: Symptoms and Causes

COPD is the umbrella term for several conditions that cause airflow blockages and other breathing-related issues. Chronic bronchitis and emphysema can both lead to COPD. Chronic bronchitis is the inflammation of your bronchial tubes’ lining, while emphysema destroys the air sacs at the ends of the smallest air passages.

Key Symptoms of COPD

Common symptoms of COPD are:

  • Chest tightness
  • Wheezing
  • Fatigue
  • Unintended weight loss
  • Shortness of breath
  • Chronic cough that produces clear, white, yellow, or green mucus
  • Swelling in feet and ankles

It’s common to experience exacerbations, which is when symptoms get significantly worse for days at a time. Many factors cause exacerbations, including exposure to air pollution, respiratory infections, and anything else that triggers inflammation. 

Causes and Risk Factors

Those most likely to develop COPD are women and people who:

  • Are over 65.
  • Have experienced air pollution.
  • Had many respiratory infections during childhood.

One of the most prevalent causes of COPD is smoking. Smoking irritates your airways, triggering inflammation that narrows those airways. Because smoke also damages the cilia, they’re not able to effectively get rid of mucus or particles from the airways. 

Another cause of COPD is alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency. This is an uncommon disorder that can cause emphysema. When you have AAT deficiency, you don’t have an enzyme that protects your lungs from inflammation. The deficiency makes it easier for your lungs to experience damage from irritating substances like dust and smoke. 

The Current Treatments and Their Limitations

Current COPD treatments include the use of bronchodilators and steroids — as well as oxygen therapy — to minimize the symptoms of the condition. 

Bronchodilators are medications that relax the muscles around the airways, helping you get better airflow. Some bronchodilators offer quick relief for acute episodes, while others are more appropriate for maintenance. 

Steroids work together with bronchodilators to reduce airway inflammation. The problem with steroids is that they have significant side effects when used as a long-term treatment. Some of these side effects include weight gain, an increased risk of developing infections, and even bone loss. 

Oxygen therapy is appropriate for people who have severe hypoxemia because it helps improve oxygen levels and relieve symptoms. Pulmonary rehabilitation programs are other options that combine exercise training with education to help patients understand the condition better. 

Surgery is the last recourse for people with severe COPD who don’t find any relief from medications or other options. For some people, a lung transplant is a viable choice. For others, the removal of damaged lung tissue can offer some relief from symptoms. 

Limitations of Traditional Treatments

Although doctors have been providing these options for a long time, they have limitations. For instance, they may offer relief from symptoms, but they typically don’t address the underlying cause of the problem. Even after treatment, the damage to your airway passages and lungs remains. 

The side effects of long-term use of these treatments can also be serious. Corticosteroids put a strain on your heart, cause muscle weakness, and can even impact wound healing, which can make them a challenging choice for long-term management of COPD. 

More invasive procedures, like surgery, have significant risks. Additionally, there are limits to who can receive surgery for COPD because of the use of anesthesia. 

Recent Advances in the Treatment of COPD

To help improve the quality of life of a patient with COPD, new treatment options are available. By working closely with your doctor, you can find the right choice for your unique needs.

Drug Therapy Innovations

The latest medications for those with COPD are new bronchodilators and anti-inflammatory medications that don’t cause the same side effects that may make you hesitate to try long-term drug treatments. The goal of these new medications is to offer longer-lasting support and reduce the flares you experience with COPD. 

Inhaler Technologies

Your inhaler is an important part of a COPD treatment program, and the latest technologies allow for better drug delivery while also ensuring that the inhaling techniques are correct. All of this makes it easier to stick to using your inhaler regularly. 

Stem Cell Therapy for COPD

A new potential treatment option for COPD is regenerative medicine, also known as stem cell therapy. This type of regenerative medicine uses stem cells to help your body heal itself so that it can regenerate damaged tissue for better lung function. 

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be isolated from various sources, such as bone marrow, adipose tissue, or umbilical cord blood. These cells have the ability to differentiate into different cell types and possess immunomodulatory and regenerative properties.

MSCs have shown promise as a potential therapeutic approach for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). While there is currently no cure for COPD, MSC-based therapies have the potential to modulate the immune response, reduce inflammation, and promote tissue repair in the lungs.

When administered into the lungs, MSCs can release anti-inflammatory molecules, promote tissue regeneration, and interact with the immune system to suppress excessive inflammation.

Getting Treatment for COPD

If you have COPD, ensuring that you have the right treatment plan on your side is vital for your long-term recovery. If you have COPD and it is progressively worsening, and there are limited treatment options available, you may want to explore stem cell therapy as a potential avenue for slowing disease progression or improving lung function.

Regenerative medicine aims to enhance what your body already does naturally, helping it heal so that you improve your quality of life. Speak to a regenerative specialist on the options you may have with this new alternative therapy option.

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